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Phobia A severe fear of an object or situation which prevents a person from living a normal life.
Classical conditioning A learning process which builds up an association between two stimuli through repeated pairings
Association The link between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus that makes the neutral stimulus cause the same response.
Generalisation When a conditioned response is produced to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Extinction The loss of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeated many times without the unconditioned stimulus.
Social learning theory Learning new behaviours by watching and imitating others.
Vicarious reinforcement Learning through the positive consequences of others rather than ourselves - we are more likely to copy a behaviour if we see a person being rewarded for it.
Modelling Imitating the behaviour of someone.
Preparedness The tendency to learn some associations more easily, quickly and permanently than others.
Nature-nurture debate Whether it is biological factors or our environment that makes us who we are
Questionnaire A research method using written questions that can be given to lots of people.
Open questions Questions that ask for description and detail.
Closed questions Simple questions with few possible answers.
Rank-style questions Questions with answers that are in a particular order/can be chosen.
Standardised instructions Guidance for participants that is the same for everyone.
Response bias When participants fall into pattern when answering questions, e.g. always saying 'yes'
Social desirability When participants give the answer that they think will be acceptable to others
Flooding A therapy which forces a person to confront their fear until they are able to deal with it.
Systematic desensitisation A therapy which encourages a person to confront their fear but by creating a hierarchy of fears and dealing with the least feared first.
Hierarchy of fears A list of fears that are arranged from most to least feared.
Collectivist culture A culture that encourages group dependence, cooperation and group identity.
Individualist culture A culture that encourages independence, personal achievement and competition
Clinical psychologist A person who works with people who have problems or illnesses and focuses on problem-solving, support and positive thinking
Created by: khills
Popular Psychology sets




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