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Ch. 1 terms

Pathology

QuestionAnswer
sign measureable or objective manifestations
symptoms feelings that the patient describes- subjective manifestations
iatrogenic disease caused by physician or treatment
nosocomial incidences of infections being developed at the acute care facility
community-aquired infected by exposure in the public domain
idiopathic having an unknown cause for underlying disease
ischemia interference of blood supply to an organ; deprives cells & tissues of oxygen & nutrients
infarct localized area of ischemic necrosis; produced by occlusion of either arterial supply or venous drainage
hemmorrhage implies rupture of a blood vessel
hematoma accumulation of blood trapped within body tissues
atrophy reduction in the size of cells in an organ or tissue, w/ a corresponding decrease in function
hypertrophy increase in the size of the cells of a tissue or organ in response to a demand for increased function
hyperplasia increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ
dysplasia loss of uniformity of individual cells & their architectural orientation
epidemiology study of determinants of disease events in given populations
morbidity rate that an illness or abnormality occurs
mortality reflects the number of deaths by disease per population
antigens foreign substance that evokes an immune response
antibodies immunoglobulins responding to the antigens to make them harmless
immune protected against antigens; antibodies binding w/ antigens to make them harmless
active immunity forming antibodies to counteract an antigen by way of vaccine or toxoid
vaccine contact w/ dead or deactivated microorganisms to form antibodies
toxoid treated toxin w/ antigenic power to produce immunity by creating antibodies
standard precautions protection utilized when delivering healthcare services to a person
personal protective equipment (PPE) gowns, gloves, masks, shoe covers, & eye protection used to prevent transmission of potential infectious agent
transmission-based precautions additional protective equipment to prevent the spread of highly infectious pathogens through contact, droplet, or airborne transmission
passive immunity refers to the administration of a dose of performed antibodies from the immune system of an animal, usually a horse
grading assessment of aggressiveness or degree or malignancy
staging refers to the extensiveness of a tumor at its primary site & the presence or absence of metatases to lymph nodes & distant organs, such as the liver, lungs, & skeleton
neoplasia (new growth) abnormal proliferation of cells that are no longer controlled by the factors that govern the growth of normal cells -Neoplastic cells act as parasites, competing w/ normal cells & tissues for their metabolic needs -Neoplasm AKA tumors
oncology study of neoplasms (tumors)
benign growth that closely resembles the cells of origin in structure & function
malignant neoplastic growth that invades & destroys adjacent structures & spread to distant sites (metastasize), causing death
carcinoma malignant neoplasm of epithelial cell origin
metastasize malignant neoplasms that travel to distant sites
anaplastic undifferentiated cell growth- w/out form *(bizarre)
sarcoma highly malignant tumor originating from connective tissue (bone, muscle, & cartilage) - Spreads more rapidly
inflammation initial response of the tissue to local injury
permeable membrane allows fluids/cells to pass from one tissue to another or location
granulation tissue fibrous scar replaces destroyed tissue
pyogenic bacteria thick, yellow fluid called pus (dead white cells)
abcess localized, usually encapsulated, collection of fluid
bacteremia potential involvement of other organs & tissues in the body by organisms invading the blood vessels
edema accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue or body cavities
anasarca generalized edema that occurs w/ pronounced swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body
elephantiasis localized lymphatic obstruction resulting in localized edema
mutation alteration in the DNA structures that may become permanent hereditary change
autosomal dominant disorders are transmitted from one generation to the next - not everyone who has the gene will demonstrate the trait -Variable expressivity- refers to the fact that a dominant gene may manifest somewhat differently in different individuals
autosomal recessive result only when a person is homozygous for the defective gene -Doesn't usually affect the parents
dominant gene always produces an effect
recessive gene manifests when a person is homozygous for the trait
Pathology study of diseases that can cause abnormalities in the structure or function of various organ systems
Disease the pattern of the body's response to some form of injury that causes a deviation from or variation of normal conditions
Phagocytosis a process where white blood cells cross the capillary walls into the injured tissues, where they engulf enzymatically disgest infesting organisms & cellular debris
Scar tissue formation consists of fibrous connective tissue, which can be divided into primary union (surgical incision) & secondary union (nonsurgical; gunshot wound)
Pyogenic production of thick, yellow fluid called pus, which contains white blood cells, inflammatory exudate, & bacteria
Supperative inflammation associated w/ pus formation
Bacteremia potential involvement of other organs & tissues in the body (too much pus)
Granulomatous inflammation manifests as a distinct pattern seen in relatively few diseases, including tuberculosis, syphilis, & sarcoidosis
Granuloma localized area of chronic inflammation, often w/ central necrosis
Petechiae minimal hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, or serosal surfaces
Purpura slightly larger hemorrhage
Ecchymosis a larger (greater than 1 or 2 cm) subcutaneous hematoma, or bruise
Examples of hyperplasia 1) proliferation of granulation tissue in the repair of injury 2) increased cellularity of bone marrow in patients w/ hemolytic anemia or after hemorrhage
Cachexia tumor cells may flourish & the patient becomes weak & emaciated
Cancers Latin word for "crab"
All tumors, both benign & malignant, have 2 basic components 1) the parenchyma (organ tissue), made up of proliferation neoplastic cells 2) the supporting stroma (supporting tissue), made up of connective tissue, blood vessels, & possibly lymphatic vessels
Fibromas benign tumors of fibrous tissues
Chondromas benign cartilaginous tumors
Adenoma applied to benign epithelial neoplams that grow in gland-like patterns
Cystadenomas benign tumors that form large cystic masses
Lipomas consist of soft fatty tissue
Myomas tumors of muscle
Angiomas tumors composed of blood vessels
Papilloma or polyp an epithelial tumor that grows as a projecting mass on the skin or from an inner mucous membrane
Adenocarcinoma malignancies of glandular tissues, such as the breast, liver, & pancreas, & the cells lining the GI tract
Squamous cell carinoma denotes a cancer in which the tumor cells resemble stratified squamous epithelium, as in the lung, head, & neck regions
Pnumocystis jirovecii immunocompromised patients w/ malignancy are especially susceptible to unusual opportunistic infections
Malignant neoplasms disseminate to distant sites by one of 3 pathways 1) seeding within body cavities 2) lymphatic spread 3) hematogenous spread
Seeding (diffuse spread) when neoplams invade a natural body caivty
Lymphatic spread major metastatic route of carcinomas, especially those of the lung & breast
Hematogenous spread tumor cells invade & penetrate blood vessels, traveling as neoplastic emboli in the circulation
Most common hereditary abnormality enzyme deficiency
Autosomes 44 of the chromosomes
Reduced penetrance means that not everyone who has the gene will demonstrate the trait
variable penetrance refers to the fact that a dominant gene may manifest somewhere differently in different individuals
Anaphylactic reactions characterized by hypotension, & vascular collapse (shock) w/ urticaria (hives), bronchiolar spasm, & laryngeal edema
Cytotoxic reaction either the antigen is a component of a cell or it attaches to the wall of red blood cells
Delayed reaction an individual previously sensitized to an antigen
Created by: hicksm0155