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PY101 exam 1/HSpsy1

Exam 1 Study Prep

QuestionAnswer
Of what two schools was psychology born? Philosophy & Physiology
What did the field of psychology focus on to become it's own independent discipline? Using a scientific approach to studying the mind, mental awareness, and sensation.
When was the birth of psychology? 1879
Who is the father of psychology that established the first psych lab at the University of Leipzig (Germany)? Wilhelm Wundt
What is meant by the term "introspection"? It is the careful, systematic, self-observation, of one's own conscious experience. (Looking within yourself)
How did structuralists use introspection? Structuralists relied on introspection to study consciousness. Subjects were to focus on their awareness to stimuli to which they were exposed. ex. How does something make you feel?
What are the two schools of thought associated with psychology? Structuralism and Functionalism
What is structuralism? Analyzing consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related. ( how do we feel/think about things, what do we notice...)
What is functionalism? To investigate the function or purpose of consciousness (why do we think/behave/react in specific manners.
What psychologist is associated with structuralism? Edward Titchener
What psychologist is associated with functionalism? William James
What is cognition? Cognition is the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. (thinking or conscious experience)
What is ethnocentrism? Ethnocentrism is having the attitude/ idea that your own culture or group is superior to others. This can lead to bias.
What is the definition of psychology? It is the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems.
What are the goals of the scientific approach? measurement and description, understanding and prediction, application and control
What is the scientific approach? An approach that assumes events are governed by some lawful order or principles establishing consistencies. It is used to specify exactly what is meant. We use it to judge claims with clarity and precision through assessment.
List the 5 steps to scientific investigation (scientific method). 1) formulate a hypothesis, 2) design the study (proposal for experiment, 3) collect the data, 4) analyze the data, 5) report the findings.
How is the experimental research method used? It detects cause-effect relationships by manipulating variables.
How is the descriptive/correlational research method used? It observes whether there is a link between variables of interest because the researcher doesn't have the control to manipulate the variables.
What is an independent variable? (IV) The variable that can be applied, manipulated, or varied by experimenter input.
What is a dependent variable? (DV) The variable thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable.
What is an experimental group? The group receiving treatment in an experiment.
What is the control group? The group receiving no treatment and is used for comparison to the treated group.
What is the advantage of the experimental method? It is a strong indicator of cause-effect relationships.
What are the disadvantages of the experimental method? Disadvantages are limitations with controls and it can't realistically be applied to explore every type of research question.
Define statistics. The use of math to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data. It means turning findings into numbers to see if your data supports your hypothesis by using an empirical approach, not chance.
What are the three measures of central tendency? mean, median, mode
Define mean. average (most useful measure)
Define median. middle of the scores
Define mode. the number that appears most frequently
What is meant by standard deviation? index of the amount of variability in the data (data scattering)
What is meant by a low standard deviation? The scores are close together
When the majority of the scores are close together, except for one really low score, what happens to the standard deviation? It is higher because of the one score that varies so much
What is a correlation coefficient? It is the numerical index of the degree of relation between two variables. The higher the correlation the more likely the variables relate to each other.
What are two advantages of internet research? When conducting online surveys it is simple for data collection. It also makes it easier to sample larger groups of people.
What are the disadvantages to internet research? Sampling bias and it offers less control in the experiment
What are some ethical guidelines to consider for psychological research? voluntary participation, informed consent, no dangerous procedures, disclose necessary deception after the study, don't violate the right to privacy, justify any harm to animals, obtain approval from host institutions, and report results
This type of descriptive/correlational research method uses questionnaires and interviews. It only indicates correlation, not cause. survey method
This type of descriptive/correlational research method observes subjects in their natural environment. For example, a researcher might watch monkeys in a rainforest. It only indicates correlation, not cause. naturalistic observation
This type of descriptive/correlational research method gathers information from past observations and historical records. It only indicates correlation, not cause. case study
What is a disadvantage of naturalistic observation? The subject may perform differently if they realize a researcher is present.
What is a disadvantage of a case study? The information supplied for review may not be accurate.
What is a disadvantage of using the survey method? Subjects may answer how they think you want them to respond rather than truthfully.
What is meant by "psychology is empirical"? It is based on objective observations made through research.
Which influences behavior, nature (biology) or nurture (environment)? They both jointly influence behavior.
What psychologist said the unconscious consists of thoughts that one is not aware of, but that still influence behavior? Freud
What are some common flaws in research? sampling bias, placebo effects, distortions in self-report, experimenter bias
What are distortions in self-report? distortions in self-report -answering as to what you feel is desirable
What are placebo effects? placebo effects -participants expectations lead them to experience a change even though they receive fake treatment
What is sampling bias? sampling bias -when a sample is not representative of the population
What is experimenter bias? experimenter bias occurs when preferences about the outcome influence the results
Created by: sbibbs