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Adams Chp 13

Pharmacology

TermDefinition
Acetylcholine (Ach) Primary neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic nervous system; also present at somatic neuromuscular junctions and at sympathetic preganglionic nerves.
Acetylcholinesterase (AchE) Enzyme that degrades acetylcholine within the synaptic cleft, enhancing effects of the neurotransmitter.
Adrenergic Relating to nerves that release norepinephrine or epinephrine.
Adrenergic antagonist Drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system.
Alpha receptor Type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system.
Anticholinergic Drug that blocks the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system Portion of the peripheral nervous system that governs involuntary actions of the smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Beta receptor (β receptor) Type of subreceptor found in the sympathetic nervous system.
Catecholamines Class of agents secreted in response to stress that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.
Central nervous system (CNS) Division of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Cholinergic Relating to nerves that release acetylcholine.
Fight-or-flight response Characteristic set of signs and symptoms produced when the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
Ganglionic synapse The juncture between two multipolar neurons located outside of the central nervous system (CNS), where axon terminals from the first neuron make contact with cell bodies and extensions of the second neuron.
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) Enzyme that destroys norepinephrine in the nerve terminal.
Muscarinic Type of cholinergic receptor found in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Myasthenia gravis Motor disorder caused by a destruction of nicotinic receptors on skeletal muscles and characterized by profound muscular fatigue.
Nicotinic Type of cholinergic receptor found in ganglia of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Norepinephrine (NE) Primary neurotransmitter in the sympathetic nervous system.
Parasympathetic nervous system Portion of the autonomic nervous system that is active during periods of rest and that results in the rest-or-relaxation response.
Parasympathomimetic Drug that mimics the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system Division of the nervous system containing all nervous tissue outside the CNS, including the autonomic nervous system.
Postganglionic neuron Autonomic nerve after the ganglionic synapse transmitting impulses to the target tissue.
Preganglionic neuron Autonomic nerve before the ganglionic synapse carrying impulses from the spinal cord.
Rest-and-digest response Signs and symptoms produced when the parasympathetic nervous system is activated.
Somatic nervous system Nerve division that provides voluntary control over skeletal muscle.
Sympathetic nervous system Portion of the autonomic system that is active during periods of stress and results in the fight-or-flight response.
Sympatholytics A drug that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system.
Sympathomimetic Drug that stimulates or mimics the sympathetic nervous system.
Synapse Junction between two neurons consisting of a presynaptic nerve, a synaptic cleft, and a postsynaptic nerve.
Synaptic transmission Process by which a neurotransmitter reaches receptors to regenerate the action potential.
Created by: tclerveaux