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Natural Organics

Esters, Soap and Organic Synthesis

What is the simplest ester? Methyl methanoate
What are naturally occurring made from? An alcohol called glycerol and a long chain carboxylic acid
What is the naturally occurring ester used to make soap? Glyceryl Tristearate
What is the alternative name for saponification? The base hydolysis of esters as concentrated Sodium Hydroxide is used in the reaction
Name an important by product of the manufacture of soap? Glycerol, which can be used to make nitro glycerine, an important explosive
Why is the ethanol distilled off after the soap has been made? Ethanol is an irritant that cannot be left in the soap.
How is the Sodium Hydroxide removed from the soap solution? The soap solution is rinsed with a brine solution (high salt concentration). The sodium hydroxide will dissolve in the salt water but the soap will not.
What are the 3 reactants used to make soap? Lard/Fat, Sodium Hydroxide and Ethanol
Why is ethanol added to the reaction flask in the making of soap? Ethanol acts as a solvent in the reaction
How does soap remove oil dirt and grease? Soap consists of a long chain non-polar tail with a short polar head. The non polar chain is attracted to non polar oil and grease. Water which is polar then pulls away the polar head, taking the non-polar tail and oil.grease with it.
Physical properties of esters? 1: Colourless liquid with a fruity smell 2: Slightly soluble in water but soluble in organic solvents 3: Low boiling point as they cannot form Hydrogen bonds, however the shorter chain esters can form them with water. 4: Found in flowers and fruits
Examples of naturally occurring organic molecules? Morphine for pain relief, quinine for malaria prevention, penicillin, aspirin, paracetamol and ibuprofen. Vanilla, benzaldehyde and caffeine for food flavourings. Narcotics like opium, cocaine and heroine.
What is clove oil used for? Used in beef flavourings, ham, sausages and sweets. It also has antiseptic properties and is used in perfumes and soaps.
Chemical name for clove oil? Eugenol
Why is steam distillation used to remove the clove oil? The mixture of water and oil distills the eugenol above the boiling point of the water but below the boiling point of the oil.
What is an emulsion? An emulsion is a mixture of oil droplets in water.
How do we extract the oil from the emulsion? We use solvent extraction. Adding an organic solvent like cyclohexane allows the eugenol to dissolve. The organic solvent and water can now be separated using a tap funnel. The cyclohexane can now be evaporated leaving the eugenol behind.
Created by: cbschemistry



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