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Acids and Bases

Arrhenius and Bronsted Lowry

Common properties of Acids They turn blue litmus red. They have a sour taste. They react with metals to release Hydrogen.
Common properties of Bases They turn red litmus blue. A base that dissolves in water is called an alkali.
Arrhenius definition of an Acid An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce H+ ions.
Difference between a strong Arrhenius Acid and a weak Arrhenius Acid A strong acid fully dissociates in water while a weak acid only partially dissociates in water.
Dative Covalent Bond A dative covalent bond occurs when one atom donates both electrons to the other atom it is bonding with.
Arrhenius definition of a Base A base is a substance which dissociates in water to produce OH- ions.
Difference between a strong Arrhenius Base and a weak Arrhenius Base A strong base fully dissociates while a weak base only partially dissociates
Flaws in the Arrhenius System 1: Arrhenius restricted his theory to acids and bases that dissolve in water. 2: Some acids and bases react in gaseous form with no solvent required. 3: It is the hydronium ion not H+ that exists in solution.
Formula of a Hydronium Ion H30+
Bronsted-Lowry theory of an aicd/base An acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton acceptor.
Exception to Acid and Bases Ammonia can either accept or donate protons and can be classified as either an acid or a base. A substance like this is known as amphoteric.
Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs A conjugate acid/base pair is any pair of an acid and a base that differ by 1 proton
What does an acid become when it donates a proton? Conjugate base
What does a base become when it accepts a proton? Conjugate acid
Neutralisation Neutralisation occurs when an acid and a base react to form a salt and water.
Definition of a "salt". A salt is formed whenever the hydrogen from an acid is replaced by a metal or an ammonium ion.
Examples of Neutralisation 1: Medicine: Antacids contain Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate. 2: Farming: Calcium Oxide added to acidic soil. 3: Environmental: Limestone added to acidified lakes 4: Toothpaste: reacts with the acid produced by bacteria.
Created by: cbschemistry