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Properties of Gases

Properties of Gases and Gas Laws

Definition of a gas A gas is a substance that has no fixed shape or volume and diffuses to fill any container in which it is placed.
Temperature used when measuring gases Kelvin
Brownian Motion Random movement of particles in a gas
Pressure of a gas (definition) The pressure of a gas is the force it exerts per unit area.
Units used to measure the pressure of a gas N/m>2 or the pascal
Atmospheric pressure in Pascals 1x10>5 or 100,000Pa or 100kPa
Units for measuring the volume of a gas metres cubed
How to convert cm cubed into meters cubed divide by 1,000,000
STP At STP 1 mole of ANY gas will occupy 22.4L
Measurements for STP Standard Temperature: 273K, 0 celcius. Standard Pressure: 1x10>5Pa/100kPa/1atm
Boyle's Law Boyle's Law states that at a constant temperature the volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
Relationship between Pressure and 1/Volume Directly proportional
Mathematical conclusion from Boyle's Law pressure x volume = k
Charles Law Charles' Law states that at a constant pressure the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its temperature on the Kelvin scale
Mathematical conclusion from Charles' Law Volume/Temperature = k
Guy Lussacs' Law of Combining VOlumes Gases react in small whole number ratios provided that their volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure
Avogadro's Law This states that equal volumes of gases contain equal numbers of molecules, under the same temperature and pressure
4 rules of Kinetic Gas Theory 1: Particles of a gas are in continuous random motion. 2: There is no attractive or repulsive forces between these molecules 3: There is no difference between the volume of a gas and the container it is in. 4: The collisions are perfectly elastic.
Ideal Gas An ideal gas is a gas that obeys all the assumptions of kinetic theory and all the gas laws at every temperature and pressure.
Real Gases behave like Ideal Gases when: Low pressure as the molecules are far apart. High temperature as the molecules are moving rapidly.
Real Gases differ from Ideal gases when: High pressure as the molecules are pushed close together. Low temperature as they begin to condense into liquids Most gases do exhibit some form of attractive of repulsive forces
Ideal Gas Equation Pv=nRT
Volume of gases in the ideal gas equation meters cubed
Universal Gas Constant 8.31
Created by: cbschemistry