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Chapter 14

Chemical Reactions

TermDefinition
Chemical reaction The process by which one or more substances change to produce one or more different substance.
Precipitate A solid that is produced as a result of a chemical reaction in solution.
Chemical Bond A force that holds two atoms together in a molecule.
Chemical Formula A combination of symbols and numbers to represent a substance (ie H2O = water or C6H12O6 = sugar).
Prefixes: di and bi Prefix that means 2
Prefix: mono Prefix that means 1
Prefix: Poly Prefix that means many
Chemical equation A representation of a chemical reaction that uses symbols to show the relationship between reactants and products.
Reactant A substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction.
Product The substance that forms in a chemical reaction.
Law of conservation of mass The law that states that mass cannot be created or destroyed in ordinary chemical and physical changes.
Coefficient A number that is placed in front of a chemical symbol or formula (ie 2CO = 2 Carbon Dioxides.
Synthesis reaction A reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a new compound. A reaction that makes something new. (A + B --> AB).
Decomposition reaction A reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances. A reactions where something breaks into separate parts (AB --> A + B).
Single-displacement reaction A reaction in which one element takes the place of another element in a compound. One atom kicks out another and takes its place in the relationship (AB + C --> AC + B) C takes the place of B.
Double-displacement reaction A reaction in which elements from two separate compounds switch places. (AB + CD --> AC + BD) Both groups swapped partners).
Exothermic reaction A chemical reaction in which energy is given off (ie a glow stick.
Endothermic reaction A chemical reaction in which energy is taken in. (ie the ice packs where you have to break something in the bag)
Law of conservation of energy The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change forms.
Activation energy The minimum amount of energy required to start a chemical reaction.
Inhibitor A substance that slows down or stops a chemical reaction.
Catalyst A substance that lowers the activation energy needed for a reaction to occur (ie enzymes).
Ionic Bond Bond made when atoms gain or lose electrons.
Covalent Bond Bond made when atoms share electrons.
Ion An atom that has gained or lost an electron and has a + or - charge.
Created by: Kenmore Science