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Medical Terminology

Units 7 & 8

QuestionAnswer
Gall Bladder The reservoir for bile on the posteroinferior surface of the liver.
Cystic Duct The duct through which bile from the gall bladder passes into the common bile duct.
Common Bile Duct The duct formed by the juncture of the cystic and hepatic ducts.
Hepatic Duct Bile drains from the liver into the hepatic duct.
Ampulla of Vator The dialation formed by the juncture of the pancreatic and bile ducts as they open into the lumen of the duodenum.
Sphincter of Oddi A band of muscle fibers around the lower end of the common bile and pancreatic duct.
Biliary Calculi Stones in the biliary system.
Cholangitis Inflammation of the bile duct.
Cholecystitis Inflammation of the gall bladder.
Cholecystolithiasis Presence of stones in the gall bladder.
Cholelith Gall stone.
Cholelithiasis Presence of stones in the gall bladder.
Cholecystogram Gall bladder examination.
Exams of the biliary system ERCP(Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), Cholangiogram, Oral Cholecystogram (rarely done due to ultrasound).
Submandibular Gland One of a pair of round, walnut-sized salivary glands in the submandibular triangle, the gland that secretes both mucus and a thinner serous fluid, which aid the digestive process.
Sublingual Gland One of a pair of small salivary glands situated under the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. The sublingual gland secretes mucous produced by its alveoli.
Parotid Gland One of the largest pairs of salivary glands that lie at the side of the face just below and in front of the external ear.
Cardiac Orifice Where the esophagus meets the stomach.
Fundus of the Stomach A cul-de-sac of the stomach that lies above the level of the cardiac orifice.
Greater Curvature The outer (larger) external curvature of the stomach (in AP view).
Lesser Curvature The inner (smaller) internal curvature of the stomach (in AP view).
Body of the Stomach The large central portion of the stomach.
Pylorus The funnel shaped terminal portion of the stomach where most digestion takes place.
Rugae Interior lining of the stomach shaped into numerous macrospic longitudinal folds.
Pyloric Sphincter Where the pylorus narrows to form the duodenal portion of the small intestine.
Duodenal Cap (Bulb) The first part of the superior portion of the duodenum.
Duodenum The shortest, widest, and most fixed portion of the small intestine.
Jejunum The middle of the three portions of the small intestines.
Ileum The lower-third distal portion of the small intestine; extends from the jejunum to the cecum.
Ileo-cecal Valve Where the ileum empties into the cecum.
Cecum A pouchlike structure or cul-de-sac constituting the first part of the large intestine.
Appendix A wormlike blunt process extending from the cecum.
Ascending Colon Extends from the cecum to the lower border of the liver and turns abruptly to form the hepatic flexure.
Transverse Colon Colon proceeding transversly to the left and curves beneath the lower end of the spleen to form the splenic flexure.
Descending Colon Colon proceeding downward (inferiorly) until it becomes sigmoid colon in the pelvis.
Sigmoid Colon Extends from the descending colon in the pelvis to the juncture of the rectum.
Rectum Lower part of the large intestine; continuous with the descending sigmoid colon, proximal to the anus.
Colic Spasmatic pains in the abdomen.
Colitis Inflammation of the colon.
Diaphragmatic Hernia Hernia through the diaphragm.
Diverticula Outpouching of the wall of an organ (pleural).
Duodenitis Inflammation of the duodenum.
Enteritis Inflammation of the intestine.
Gastritis Inflammation of the stomach.
Hiatal Hernia Hernia through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.
Ileitis Inflammation of the Ileum.
Megacolon Abnormally distended colon.
Ulcer Lesion of the mucous surface of the alimentary canal.
Ulcerative Cholitis Inflammation and widespread ulcers in the colon.
Anastomosis Surgical, traumatic, or pathological formation of an opening between two normally distant spaces or organs.
Intussusception Prolapse of one segment of bowel into the lumen of another segment. This kind of intestinal obstruction may involve segments of the small intestine, the colon, or the terminal ileum and cecum. It occurs most often in infantsand small children and is cha
Exams of the Digestive System Barium Swallow, Gastro-Intestinal Series (UGI), Small Bowel Series (SBFT), Barium Enema, Sialography, (rarely done due to CT and MRI)
Kidney Two organs in the lumbar region that filter the blood, excreting the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine.
Pelvis Funnel shaped expansion of the upper end of the ureter into which the renal calices open.
Calices One of the recesses of the pelvis of the kidney (a cup shaped organ).
Renal Cortex The outer part of the substance of the kidney (outer layer of the organ).
Poles of the Kidney (Upper Pole, Lower Pole) Either end of an axis through the length of a kidney.
Ureter One of a pair of tubes, about 30 cm. long, that carries urine from the kidney into the bladder.
Bladder A muscular membranous sac in the pelvis that stores urine for discharge through the urethra.
Urethra Membranous canal through which urine is discharged from the bladder to the exterior of the body.
Prostate A gland surrounding the neck of the bladder and urethra of the male; it contributes a secretion to the semen.
Bladder Diverticulum Outpouching of the bladder wall.
Cystitis Inflammation of the bladder.
Horseshoe Kidney Congenital malformation of the kidney.
Incontinence Inability to control discharge of urine (urination).
Lipoma Fatty Tumor.
Liposarcoma Malignant fatty tumor.
Megabladder Enlarged bladder.
Nephritis Disease of the kidney characterized by inflammation and abnormal function.
Nephrolithiasis Disorder characterized by the presence of renal calculi (kidney stones).
Nephrolithotomy The surgical removal of renal calculi.
Nephromagaly Extreme hypertrophy of one or both kidneys.
Nephroptosis Downward displacement of kidneys.
Perirenal Abscess Abscess surrounding the kidney.
Polycystic kidney Multiple cysts of kidney(s).
Prostatism Chronic disease of the prostate gland.
Prostatitis Acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland, usually the result of an infection.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) Nonmalignant noninflammatory enlargement of the prostate, most common in men over 50 years of age. BPH is usually progressive and may lead to urethral obstruction and may lead to interference with urine flow, urinary frequency, and urinary tract infectio
Pyelitis Inflammation of the renal pelvis.
Renal Hypertrophy Overgrowth of the kidney.
Ureterostenosis Narrowing of the ureter.
Exams of the urinary system Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP), Cystogram, Voiding Cystourethrogram, Retrograde Urethrogram.
Etiology and causes The study of the cause or origin of disease or disorder. Causes: Metabolic (diabetes) Infections (measles, mumps) Congenital (cleft lip) Hereditary (hemophilia) Environmental (burns, trauma) Neoplastic (cancer)
Diagnosis Establishing the cause and nature of a disease.
Prognosis The prediction of the course of the disease and its probable outcome.
Idiopathic Any disease whose cause is unknown.
Crohn's disease Inflammatory condition of the intestinal tract, most commonly the ileum. Distinguished by its inflammatory pattern.
Dyspepsia Gastric indigestion or "upset stomach."
Dysphagia Inability or difficulty in swallowing.
Emesis Vomiting
Hematemesis Vomiting blood
Pyloric Stenosis Narrowing of the gastric pylorus.
Anoxia, Hypoxia Absence of deficiency of oxygen in tissues.
Asphyxia Insufficient oxygen, literally means "without pulse."
Atelectasis Collapse of alveoli; incomplete expansion of the lung.
Pleural Effusion Accumulation of fluid in the intrapleural spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary Edema Excessive fluid in the lungs.
Arrythmia Irregularity in heart action.
Edema Condition where body tissues contain an excess of tissue fluid.
Hypertension On separate occasions, blood pressure is higher than normal.
Fibrilation Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions.
Infarct Tissue that undergoes necrosis after loss of blood supply.
Ischemia Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply.
Thrombus, Thrombi Blood clot that obstructs a vessel.
Claudication Lameness, limping
Uremia Metabolic waste (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) in the blood.
Fistula Abnormal passage from hallow organ to the surface, or from one organ to another.
Lethargy Abnormal activity or lack of response to normal stimuli.
Syncope Fainting
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) Temporary interference with blood supply to the brain lasting from a few minutes to a few hours.
Dyspnea Difficulty breathing.
Tachycardia Rapid heart action.
Bradycardia Slow heart action.
Tachypnea Rapid breathing.
Created by: Legend70