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Discovery and Chemistry of Radiation

French scientist who discovered radiation: Henri Becquerel
What elemental salt was Becquerel using when he discovered radiation Uranium
Definition of Radiation Radiation is the spontaneous breaking down of unstable nuclei with the emission of one or more types of radiation
Husband and wife who discovered 2 new radioactive elements: Pierre and Marie Curie
Uranium ore the Curies were trying to purify? Pitchblende
2 elements discovered by the Curies Polonium and Radium
3 type so f Radiation: Alpha, Beta and Gamma
Alpha Particle: Penetrating Power, Charge, Composition Stopped by a sheet of paper or a few cm of air, positively charged Made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons, He nucleus
Beta Particle: Penetrating Power, Charge, Composition Stopped by 5mm Al, Negatively charged, neutron decomposed to form one proton and one electron. Proton kept, electron ejected. Made up of an electron
Gamma Radiation: Penetrating Power, Charge, Composition Stopped by a few feet of concrete or a thick sheet of lead. No charge, not a particle, composed of pure high energy electromagnetic energy
Use of alpha radiation Americium 241 found in smoke detectors
What happens the Atomic and Mass number of an element after alpha radiation? Atomic decreases by 2, Mass number decreases by 4
What happens the Atomic and Mass number of an element after beta radiation? Atomic number increases by 1, Mass number stays the same
The changing of one element to another through radiation Transmutation
Used to detect the presence of radiation Geiger-Muller tube
Half-life The half-life of an element is the time taken for half of the neclei in any given sample to decay
Radio-isotope A radio-isotope is an isotope of a radioactive substance
Uses of radio-isotopes Medicine to kill cancer cells Archaeology to date organic material Food irradiation to kill germs Used to detect leaks in pipes
Created by: cbschemistry



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