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Chemical Bonding

Ionic, Covalent, Sigma, Pi, Inter and Intra

Element A substance that cannot be broken into simpler parts by chemical means
Compound A substance that is made up of 2 or more elements chemically joined
Molecule A group of atoms joined together. It is the smallest past of an element or compound that can exist independently.
Octet Rule When bonding occurs atoms tend to reach an electron arrangement with 8 electrons in their outer shell
2 reasons the Octet Rule failed Hydrogen and Helium only have 1 and 2 electrons. Many transition metals have more or less than 8 electrons in their outer shell
2 main types of intramolecular bonding Ionic and Covalent
Valency The number of electrons an atom needs to lose, gain or share in order to achieve noble gas structure
Ionic Bonding An ionic bond occurs when one atom loses electrons and one atom gains electrons. It is the force of attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Regular structures formed by ionic compounds Crystal lattice
Repeating unit of a crystal lattice Unit cell
Covalent bonding A covalent bond is formed when electrons are shared between 2 or more atoms
Single, double and triple bond are composed of how many electron pairs Single: formed from one shared pair of electrons Double: formed by two shared pairs of electrons Triple: formed by three shared pairs of electrons
High melting and boiling point: Ionic or Covalent? Ionic compounds
Conduct electricity: Ionic or Covalent? Ionic, when molten or dissolved in water
Sigma bond formed from a head on collision of orbitals. Very strong bonds
What orbitals can form a sigma bond? S and S, S and Px, Px and Px
Pi bonds formed from the sideways overlapping of Py and Py or Pz and Pz. Not as strong as sigma bonds
What type of bonds is a triple bond made of? One sigma and 2 pi. This is why a triple bond is not 3 times as strong as a single. Pi bonds are not as strong as a sigma. It is only about 1.5 times as strong
What does VSEPR Theory stand for? Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Two types of electron pair in VSEPR Lone pair and Bond pairs
Which has the stronger repulsion force, lone pairs or bond pairs? Lone pairs
Bond angle in triangle planer molecules? 120
Bond angle in planer v-shaped? 104.5
Bond angle in tetrahedral molecules 109.5
Bond angle in linear molecules 180
Bond angle in pyramidal molecules 107
Electronegativity This is the relative attraction an atom has for the shared pair of electrons in a colavent bond
Discoverer of electronegativity? Linus Pauling
Molecules with an eneg difference of 0 are: Non-polar
Molecules with an eneg difference less than 1.7 are: Polar Covalent
Molecules with an eneg difference greater than 1.7 are Ionic
Symmetrical molecules are said to be: polar or non-polar? non-polar
Examples of diatomic molecules (non-polar) Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iondine
Intramolecular forces: Definition and examples Bonding that occurs inside the atom: Sigma and Pi, Ionic and Covalent
Intermolecular forces: Definition and examples Bonding that occurs between 2 separate molecules: Van der Waals forces, Dipole-Dipole, Hydrogen Bonding
Van der Waals forces The attraction between the temporary dipoles of non-polar molecules. eg Diatomic molecules.
Why does the melting point of the halogens increase as we go down the group? Van der Waals forces increase due to increasing number of electrons, increasing the melting/boiling point
Dipole-Dipole These are the forces of attraction between the permanent negative pole of one molecule and permanent positive pole of another molecule.
Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonding occurs when hydrogen bonds to a small, highly electronegative element: eg: Oxygen, Nitrogen and Fluorine.
Uses of Hydrogen Bonds Kevlar bullet proof vests, Surface tension in water, Solvents like ammonia,
Created by: cbschemistry
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