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Motivation/Emotion

Barrons Chapter Outline

QuestionAnswer
feelings and ideas that cause us to act toward a goal motivation
Darwin suggested that through evolution humans developed habits related to biological and psychological factors instincts
behavior is motivated by our biological needs drive reduction theory
a requirement for survival need
an impulse to act in a way that satifies a need or what drive
balanced internal state homeostasis
biological drives such as thirst primary drives
learned drives such as working for money secondary drives
we seek certain amounts of excitement that is unique to each person arousal theory
high levels of arousal assist with easy tasks, but when applied to other tasks the effectiveness may not be as benefitial Yerkes-Dodson law
addiction theory opponent-process theory
the natural state, one that many want to return to from behaviors such as smoking baseline
behaviors can be based on desires incentive theory
stimuli we are drawn to due to learning incentitives
theorized that not all needs are equal Abraham Maslow
system that proposes the order of needs heirarchy of needs
list the Heirarchy of Needs 1.Physciological 2. Safety 3. Love 4. Esteem 5. Self-Actualization
the need to fulfill our unique potential as a person self actualization
part of the brain that controls body chemistry hypothalamus
when stimulated this causes the animal to eat lateral
when stimulated this causes the animal to stop eating ventromedial
the hypothalamus decides and controls desired body weight set-point theory
triggers hungry by attractiveness or availability of food external
triggers hunger mainly through internal cues internals
occurs when nasea is paired with either food or drink Garcia Effect
eats large amounts of food and then uses purging to rid the body of the unwanted calories Bulimia
starvation is used to prevent the body from gaining weight Anorexia
individuals who are severely overweight Obesity
developed the sexual response cycle William Masters and Virginia Johnson
sexual response cycle 1. initial excitement 2. plateau phase 3. orgasm 4. resolution phase
environmental influences probably affect this sexual orientation
3 - 10 % of the world is homosexual
our desire to master complex tasks and knowledge to reach personal goals achievement motivation
indicates the general level of arousal a person is motivated to seek optimum arousal
rewards we receive for accomplishments from outside ourselves extrinsic motivation
rewats we receive for accomplishments internally intrinsic motivation
theory combining "theories X and Y" management theory
theory that workers will work better with rewards and punishments; extrinsic motivation theory X
theory that workers will do good work because they are personally motivated to do well; intrinsic theory Y
when someone must choose between two desirable outcomes approach-approach conflict
when someone must choose between two unattractive outcomes avoidance-avoidance conflict
when one goal has both attractive and unattractive features approach-avoidance conflict
a situation in which you must decided between many choices that all have desirable and undesirable features multiple approach-avoidance conflict
theorized that emotions are felt because of biological and physciological changes caused by stree James-Lange
biological change and cognitive awareness of the emotional state are simultaneous Cannon-Bard
thalamus is responsible for both the biological and emotional awareness thalamus receives info and sends it out to the cortex and autonomic nervous system amygdala is also involved Cannon proposed
Two Factor theory Stanley Schachter physical responses and cognition combine in order to cause an emotional response
already aroused people tend to have more emotionally intense reactions then those who are not
measures stress using LCU Holmes and Rache: SRRS (social readjustment rating scale)
LCU life changing units
describes the general response humans have to stressful events GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome) Hans Seyle
GAS 1. alarm reaction 2. resistance 3. exhaustion
pressure is intensified as the organism prepares to challenge through activation of the sympathetic nervous system alarm reaction
body remains physiologically ready resistance
parasympathetic nervous system returns our body to normal exhaustion
control over events tends to lessen stress, while less control heightens it perceived control
Created by: andrewjodonnell