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The Periodic Table

History and Configuration of the Periodic Table

First scientist to use the word "element" Robert Boyle
Element A substance that cannot be broken into simpler parts by chemical means
Who developed a theory on triads Dobereiner
2 properties of a triad: 1:3 elements with similar properties 2:The atomic weight of the middle element was equal to the average of all 3
Examples of triads Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine Calcium, Strontium, Barium
Developed a Law of Octaves John Newlands
Octaves When elements are arranged in increasing atomic weight the first and eight element have similar properties
Creator of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev
Law of Periodicity When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic weight the properties of the elements vary periodically.
Why did Mendeleev reverse the order of Iodine and Tellurium To make sure they were in groups with similar properties
Discovered a way to determine the number of protons in a nucleus Henry Mosely
Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of that element
3 differences between Mendeleevs and the current Periodic Table 1: Mendeleev used atomic weight, we use atomic number 2: Mendeleev had 63 we have 109 elements 3: There are no gaps in the modern Periodic Table 4: The transition metals are in a separate group in the modern table
3 uses of the Periodic Table Getting atomic numbers and mass numbers Getting relative atomic masses Calculating and writing electronic configuration
Mass number The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in that element
Isotope An atom of the same element with a different mass number due to a different number of neutrons in the nucleus
2 isotopes of Hydrogen Deuterium and Tritium
Developed the mass spectrometer William Aston
Functions of a mass spectrometer Used to detect the presence of isotopes of an elements and the percentages of each of these isotopes. Used to calculate the relative atomic mass of an atom
5 stages of the mass spectrometer Vaporisation, Ionisation, Acceleration, Separation, Detection
Use of mass spectrometer in sports used to detect banned substances in athletes blood
Aufbau Principle The aufbau principle states that when building up the electronic configuration of an atom in its ground state, the electrons occupy the lowest available energy level
Hunds rule of maximum multiplicity This states that when two or more orbitals of equal energy are available, the electrons occupy them singly first before filling them in pairs.
Pauli Exclusion Principle This states that no more than 2 electrons may occupy an orbital and this may only do if they have opposite spin.
How many electrons can an s sublevel hold 2
How many orbitals can the entire p sublevel hold 6
How many electrons can the entire d sublevel hold 10
How many orbitals can the entire f orbital hold 18
Created by: cbschemistry