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Organic Families

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Ester and Saponification

Tetrahedral Carbon Carbon bonded to 4 separate atoms, eg Methane
Planar Carbon A carbon with a double or triple bond attached
Carbonyl Groups A molecule with a C=O
Comment on the boiling point of Carbonyl Groups Higher than corresponding alkanes but not as high as corresponding alcohols due to the fact that they cannot create Hydrogen bonds.
Primary, Secondary and tertiary alcohol Primary: Functional group attached to one other carbon Secondary: Functional group attached to 2 other carbons Tertiary: Functional group attached to 3 other carbons
Physical Properties of Alcohols Higher boiling point than expected, pleasant smell, dissolves in both water and organic solvents
Uses for alcohols Fuel, used in paints and polishes as a solvent, present in beers and spirits
Compounds used to oxidise Ethanol Sodium Dichromate and Sulphuric Acid
Colour chajnge during the oxidation of ethanol Orange to green as Cr is reduced from Cr+6 to Cr+3
Excess ethanol and limited sodium dichromate crerates: Ethanal
Excess sodium dichromate and limited ethanol creates: Ethanoic Acid
What happens the polarity of alcohols as they get longer? Their polarity decreases as the long non polar chain cancels out the small polar functional group
Physical properties of ethanal Colourless liquid with a pleasant smell, boiling point of 21 degrees
2 precautions when to ensure manufacture of ethanal Use excess ethanol and limited sodium dichromate, Distill off ethanal as soon as it is formed
4 tests for Aldehydes in order of importance Silver mirror test, Fehlings Solution, Acidified Potassium Permanganatre, Schiffs reagent.
Silver Mirror Test: Reagent used, positive colour change Ammonical Silver Nitrate, heat but do not boil, silver mirror formed.
Fehlings Solution, positive colour change? Fehlings I and II, heat but do not boil, blue to brick red precipitate
Acidified Potassium Permanganate, positive colour change Purple to colourless
What is benzaldehyde used for? Food additive used in almonds, marzipan and cherries
Difference between Aldehydes and Ketones? Aldehydes have their functional group on a terminal Carbon, Ketones have theirs in the middle
Simplest Ketone? Propanone (Acetone)
What reagent is used to make Ketones instead of Aldehyes? Secondary Alcohol instead of primary alcohol (Propan-2-ol instead of ethanol)
Carboxylic acids found in ant bites Methanoic Acid (formic acid)
What is unusual about the combustion of Ethanoic Acid? It only burns in vapor form
Physical properties of ethanoic acid Colourless liquid with a pungent smell, boiling point 118 due to Hydrogen Bonds, mixes with organic liquids and water, used as a food preservative
Ethanoic Acid + Metal > Salt + Hydrogen
From what 2 chemicals is benzoic acid made? Ethanoic Acid and Benzene
What is the purpose of reflux apparatus 1: To ensure the complete oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid 2: To ensure no loss of vapor
Why is the beaker surrounding the reaction flask cold at the start of the reflux? The reaction is exothermic, the cold water ensures the reaction does not become too vigorous.
Ethanoic Acid + Base > Salt + Water
Ethanoic Acid + Carbonate > Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Created by: cbschemistry



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