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Petrol and Octane No

Fuel terms and definitions

QuestionAnswer
Appearance of crude oil thick black liquid
The separating of substances according to their boiling points Fractional distillation
The 2 main fractions crude oil is broken into? Residual and Volatile fractions
Mercaptans Sulphur containing compounds added to natural gas to aid detection of leaks
What does LPG stand for? Liquefied Petroleum Gas
What is Naphtha used for? Used to make plastics
1 use of Bitumen Used in tarring roads
The early explosion of petrol in the cylinder of an engine Auto-ignition
Octane Rating = 0 Heptane
Octane Rating 100 2,2,4 tri methyl pentane
Octane Number The Octane Number is the measure of a fuels resistance to cause engine knocking
Sound caused in a car by auto-ignition Engine Knocking
3 factors which increase Octane Number? Addition of branches, shorter chain, addition of oxygenates
3 examples of Oxygenates added to fuel Methanol, Ethanol and MTBE
What does MTBE stand for? Methyl tertiary butyl ether
Isomerisation Turning straight chains into their isomers, making them shorter and creating more branches
Catalytic Cracking Breaking long chain hydrocarbons into shorter chains
Reforming Converting straight chain compounds into ring compounds, creating hydrogen as a by-product
Why is Benzene no longer added to petrol? Carcinogen
Why is lead no longer added to petrol? Poisonous to catalytic converters and the environment.
Created by: cbschemistry