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PSYC-2 Vocab

Psyc 101 Chapter 2 Vocab

scientific method A multistep technique that generates empirical knowledge--that is, knowledge derived from systematic observations of the world
operational definitions Definitions that specify how concepts can be observed and measured
descriptive research Methods designed to observe and describe behavior
reactivity When behavior changes as a result of the observation process
external validity The extent to which results generalize to other situations or are representative of real life.
naturalistic observation A descriptive research technique that records naturally occuring behavior as opposed to behavior produced in the laboratory
case study A descriptive research technique in which the effort is focused on a single case, usually an individual
survey A descriptive research technique designed to gather limited amounts of information from many people, usually by administering some kind of questionnaire.
random sampling A procedure guaranteeing that everyone in the population has an equal likelihood of being selected for the sample
mean The arithmetic average of a set of scores
mode Th most frequently occurring score in a set of scores
median The middle point in an ordered set of scores; half of the scores fall at or below the score, and half fall at or above the score
variability A measure of how much the scores in a distribution of scores differ from one another
range The difference between the largest and smallest scores in a distribution
standard deviation An indication of how much individual scores differ or vary from the mean
descriptive statistics Mathematical techniques that help researchers describe their data
inferential statistics Mathematical techniques that help researchers decide whether data are representative of a population or whether differences among observations can be attributed to chance.
correlation A statistic that indicates whether two variables vary together in a systematic way; ______ coefficients vary from +1.00 to -1.00
experimental research A technique in which the investigator actively manipulates the environment to observe its effect on behavior
independent variable The aspect of the environment that is manipulated in an experiment. It must consist of at least two conditions
dependent variable The behavior that is measured or observed in an experiment
confounding variable An uncontrolled variable that changes along with the independent variable
internal validity The extent to which an experiment has effectively controlled for confounding variables; __________ experiments allow for the determination of causality
rand assignment A technique ensuring that each participant in an experiment has an equal chance of being assigned to any of the conditions in the experiment
placebo An inactive, or inert, substance that resembles an experimental substance
single-blind study Experimental participants do not know to which condition they have been assigned; it's used to control for participant expectancies
double-blind study Neither participants nor research observers are aware of who has been assigned to the experimental and control groups; it's used to control for both participant and experimenter expectances
informed consent The principle that before consenting to participate in research, people should be fully informed about any significant factors that could affect their willingness to participate
debriefing At the conclusion of an experimental session, informing the participants about the general purpose of the experiment, including any deception that was involved.
confidentiality The principle that personal information obtained from a participant in research or therapy should not be revealed without the individual's permission.
Created by: katielucas16
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