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Cough & Cold Drugs

Top causes of cough & chronic cough Cough: allergy, infection, acid reflux, tumour, drug induced. Chronic cough: post-nasal drip, asthma and GERD.
Classes of drugs to help with cough & examples(3) Cough suppressants/anti-tussives (eg codeine), expectorants (eg. guaiphenesin), mucolytics (eg. ambroxol)
Anti-tussives: uses and mode of action Usually opoids used to suppress dry cough (no mucus). Does this by suppressing the cough center in the brain.
Anti-tussives: toxicity & contraindication Sedation (becomes morphine), addictive potential. Since it depresses CNS, it can cause constipation (lower GI motility) and urinary retention (^ bladder sphincter tone). Should not use in pregnant women (lethal to baby's brain), & children.
Expectorant: mode of action loosens phlegm by increasing water content, also stimulates cough center in the brain to trigger cough reflex. This promotes expulsion of mucus from the respiratory airway.
Mucolytics: uses & mode of action Patients w/ lung infections. It works by breaking down the mucus structure into something thinner and easier to be removed through coughing.
2 classes of drugs to help with cold (nasal discharge/congestion) & examples Anti-histamine (diphenhydramine, cetirizine) and decongestant (pseudoephedrine).
Anti-histamine: classes 1st gen: diphenhydramine has anti-muscarinic effects that cause dry throat, inducing cough. 2nd gen: cetirizine, loratidine has decreased anti muscarinics and is non-sedating. 3rd gen: levocetirizine is non sedating as well.
Antihistamine: uses and mode of action Reduces allergic responses, rashes and nasal discharge. This is done by binding to histamine H1 receptors through competitive inhibition. Must be used with decongestant or existing mucus will get clogged & stuck.
Anti-histamine: toxicity Can cause dry mouth and cough. 1st gen anti-histamines can cause drowsyness.
Decongestants: mode of action Adrenergic drug that causes vasoconstriction in nasal passage, relieving congestion.
Decongestants: toxicity Adrenergic drug that activates sympathetic nervous system. Too much can cause cardiac arrythmias, tachycardia and tremors.
Created by: Aurorahx



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