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Pharmacology 01

TermDefinition
Controlled substances defined by the Harrison Act (A federal law passed in 1916 that regulated the manufacture/importation/ transportation/distribution of all “narcotics ” defined by the act)
Narcotics an agent capable of producing coma or stupor OR any drug which produces analgesia and is capable of producing stupor OR the sale and use of drugs that are regulated by the Harrison Narcotic Act
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
FDA Food and Drug Administration
The Joint Commission accrediting and certification body for healthcare organizations
OTC Over-The-Counter
PDR Physicians' Desk Reference
USP-NF United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the National Formulary (NF)
Side effect any effect of a drug
Solubility the amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent
Solution a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent)
Suspension the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolved in a fluid or solid
Synergist A mutually reinforcing drug interaction such that the joint effect of two drugs administered simultaneously is greater than the sum of their individual effects
Systemic effect affecting the whole body or at least multiple organ systems (contrast with topical or local)
Topical medication that is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments
Indication a reason to prescribe a medication or perform a treatment
Local effect only affecting a particular location of the body (often anesthesia)
Onset the time required after administration of a drug for a response to be observed
Parenteral Taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract (as by intravenous or intramuscular injection)
Pharmacodynamics the study of how a drug acts on a living organism (pharmacologic response and the duration and magnitude of response observed relative to the concentration of the drug at an active site in the organism)
Pharmacokinetics The process by which a drug is absorbed/distributed/metabolized/eliminated by the body
Plasma protein binding A drug's efficiency may be affected by the degree to which it binds to the proteins within blood plasma (less bound = more efficiently traverse cell membranes or diffuse
Reconstituted The process of adding a diluent to a powdered medication to prepare a solution or suspension
Contraindication A factor that renders the administration of a drug or the carrying out of a medical procedure inadvisable
Distribution the reversible transfer of drug from one location to another within the body
Duration the length of time that particular drug is effective
Emulsion A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix
Enteral Within or by way of the intestine (as distinguished from parenteral)
Excretion any one of a number of processes by which a drug is eliminated from an organism either in an unaltered form (unbound molecules) or modified as a metabolite
Hypersensitivity The physiological state necessary for a subject’s manifesting an allergic response or reaction
Idiosyncratic effect A reaction to a medication that is unusual and unpredictable (specific to a particular person)
Absorption The process by which a drug enters the body and is available for therapeutic activity (uptake of material across a surface)
Adverse effect An unwanted effect caused by the administration of a drug
Agonist A substance (drug/hormone/neurotransmitter) that binds with a cell receptor to initiate a physiological response
Antagonist a drug that binds to a cellular receptor for a hormone/neurotransmitter/another drug blocking the action of that substance without producing any physiological effect itself
Bioavailability the rate and extent to which a drug is available to serve as a substrate to bind to a specific molecule or participate in biochemical reactions in a target tissue after administration
Biotechnology the use of living organisms or other biological systems in the manufacture of drugs or for environmental management
Biotransformation the alteration of a substance (such as a drug) within the body
Bolus a single dose of a drug or other medicinal preparation given all at once
Created by: L.Long