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RSPT chp 36 Egans

Aerosol drug therapy

QuestionAnswer
What is the output rate Mass of aerosol generated per unit of time
Particle size depends on what 3 factors Substance being nebulizer, method used, environmental conditions
What are the methods to measure the aerosol particle distribution Cascade impaction and laser diffraction
What factors are deposition influenced by Inspiratory flow rate, flow pattern, respiratory rate, inhaled volume, I:E ratio and breath holding
What are they key mechanisms of aerosol deposition Inertial impaction, gravimetric sedimentation, Brownian diffusion
Name some factors of inertial impaction Occurs when aerosol in motion collides with & are deposited on surface, larger particles >5 um. The greater the velocity and mass the greater the tendency of the object to keep in motion
When does sedimentation occur When particles settle out of suspension and are deposited due to the gravity. The greater the mass of the particles the faster it settles
What is Brownian diffusion This is the primary deposition mechanism for very small particles <3um
What is aerosol aging Process by which aerosol suspension changes over time
What does aerosol aging depend on Composition of aerosol, initial size of the particles, time in suspension and ambient condition
What are hazards of aerosol therapy Primary hazard is reaction to medication, infection, airway reactivity, pulmonary and systemic effects of bland aerosols, drug concentration change during nebulization, eye irritation
What is an MDI Metered dose inhaler- most commonly prescribed method of aerosol, easy to use, portable, most have limitations
Name some factors that affect the performance and delivery of an MDI Temp. Need to be kept in a warm place, and nozzle size and cleanliness, priming before first use and timing of actuation dose
What particle size is produced from an MDI 2-6 um particle size 80% of aerosol deposits in oropharynx
What are some MDI accessory devices Breath-actuated, spacers, holding chambers
Dry powder inhalers DPI Patient creates aerosol by drawing air through dose of finely milled drug powder, efficiency depends on the amount of inspiratory flow is inhaled
What are the different types of DPI's Unit dose, multiple unit dose, multiple dose drug reservoir
Name the factors that effect the performance of DPI Intrinsic resistance and inspiratory flow rate, exposure to humidity and moisture, patients inspiratory flow ability
What's the minimum amount that a patient must generate on the inspiratory flow to use a DPI 40-60 l/m
What is used to prevent inertial impaction A spacer esp. With a steroid
What factors effect the performance of a jet nebulizer Nebulizer design, gas pressure, gas density, medication characteristics
What are the 4 categories of small volume nebulizer Continuous with simple reservoir, continuous nebulizer with collection reservoir bag, breath enhanced, breath actuated nebulizer
When are large volume jet nebulizer used most often When traditional dosing strategies for patients with bronchospasm are not effective
What are different types of large volume jet nebulizers HEART, wrestled, HOPE, SPAG- small particle aerosol generator used to administer ribavirin
Created by: pearlekg