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Pharmacology Exam Review

Define Drug Chemical substance that affect that mind/body Used in diagnosis treatment or prevention of the disease Illegal substance
Differentiate between prescription repeats and prescription renewals Repeats: A continuation of long term medications Renewals: Extension of prescriptions that have run out
Describe sustained release Cause a delay in the active absorption of the medication
What can drugs be classified by? Function, Effects, Body System
Name and describe the different effects of drugs Therapeutic action: the purpose for giving the drug side effects/ adverse side effects: every drug has potential side effects Allergies: A Serious reaction to a drug
Name and describe the classifications of drugs by scope of action Local- we the drug affects the site of application only Systemic- Circulate in the blood stream Cumulative- Accumulates faster than it can be metabolized
Name and describe the classifications of drug by use Therapeutic: taken to relieve symptoms, diagnostic: used to perform diagnostic tests i.e enema, curative drugs: given to overcome a disease, infection other conditions, replacement: taken to "replace" a hormone, prophylactic: given to prevent a condtion
What are the four names that can be given to a single drug? Chemical, Generic, Trade and Botanical
What are the two methods of dispensing drugs Prescription, over the counter
What is enteric-coated Allows pills to bypass the stomach
What is pharmacist A health professional who is trained in preparing and dispensing drugs
What is pharmacology ? The study/descriptions of drugs, their composition actions and effects, a biological science
What is pharamacy A licensed business involved in dispensing drugs
When are drug errors more likely made? When taking over the phone prescriptions, transcription
Synergism A combination of two drugs that causes a effect that is greater than the sum of individual effects of each drug given alone
Inhalation Administration of drugs in gases or vapour form through the nose or mouth
Antidote Agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug
Stimulant Agent that excited and promotes activity
Antihypertensive Agent that lowers blood pressure
Hypnotic Agent that produces sleep
Iatrogenic An effect that is produced as an individual sensitivity to a drug
Parental By infection or intravenous administration
Side Effect An effect that routinely results from the use of a drug
Antibiotic Chemical substances that inhibits or kills foreign organisms
Systemic Circulating through the bloodstream to produce a general effect on the body
Brand Name Commercial name for a drug; trade name
Tolerance Drug action in which larger and larger doses must be given to achieve the desired effect
Antihistamine Drug that blocks the action of natural histamine in the body and relies allergy symptoms
Antidepressant Drug that is used to relieve symptoms of depression
Anticonvulsant Drug that prevents convulsions
Emetic Drug that promotes vomiting
Antidiarrheal Drug used to prevent diarrhea
Antiarrhythmic Drug which helps restore heart rhythm to a regular cycle
Antiacid Drug which neutralizes acid in the stomach
Drug which reduces or eliminates sensation Anesthetic
Drug which relieves pain Analgesic
Drugs applied on the skin or mucous membranes Topical
Drugs defined by federal law to which special rules apply because they are liable to be abused Controlled drugs
Drugs given by mouth Oral
Drugs given under the tongue Sublingual
Drugs inserted via the anus into the rectum Rectal
Factors in a patient's condition that prevents the use of a drug treatment Contraindications
Habit-forming drug that relieves pain Narcotic
Harmful effects of a drug Toxicity
Hypersensitive reaction of the body to a drug or foreign organism Anaphylaxis
Instrument for introducing fluids to or withdrawing fluids from the body Syringe
Mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes, without necessarily producing sleep Sedative
Movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells Transport
Oils extracted primarily from plants, that do not evaporate Fixed Oils
Oils extracted from plants that evaporate Volatile Oils
Particles of medication suspended in air Aerosois
Relating to the eye Ophthalmic
Substances found in foods which are essential for life Vitamin
Target substance with which a drug interacts in the body Receptor
The concentration of a drug may increase with each dose, due to the half-life of previous doses Cumulative action
The process by which a medication is taken into the body, broken down, and transformed into a form that the body can use Absorption
The process by which metabolites are transported to various parts of the body Distribution
The process of breaking down a drug or other substance into metabolites used by the body Metabolism
The time required by the body to metabolize had the amount of the drug ingested Half-life
The total effect that two drugs have in combination is equal to the sum of the effects of each Addictive action
Via the ear Otic
Furosemide twenty milligrams, take one tablet orally twice daily Furosemide 20mg 1 tab p.o b.i.d
Isopto-tears ten millilitres one to two drops in both eyes as required Isopto-tears 10mL i-ii gtts ou prn
Propanlol 40 mg, qd, po, ac breakfast propanolol 40 milligram everyday, by mouth before breakfast
Ranitidine 150mL t.i.d a.c Ranitidine 150 millilitres twice daily before meals
Amoxicillin 500 milligrams take one capsule orally four times daily after meals Amoxicillin 500mg 1 cap qid p.c
Burrasol two drops in the right ear every night for three days then one drop every other day Burrasol ii gtts a.d qPMx 3d then i gtt q.o.d
Lovastatin twenty milligrams daily taken by mouth Lovastatin 20mg qd po
Demerol fifty milligrams daily for one month Demerol 50mg qd 1/12
Peptobismol liquid one hundred twenty milligrams daily for one month Peptobismol liq 120mg qdx 1/12
Losec 20 mg three times for one week Losec twenty milligrams t.i.d x 1/52
1/12 One month
1/52 One week
A,c a.c Before meals
ASAP as soon as possible
bid, b.i.d Twice a day ** bicycle has two wheels
cap Capsule
CPS Compendium of pharamceuticals & Specialities
gtt, gtt(s) Drops
i,ii One, two
mg Milligram
mL, ml Millilitre
npo, n.p.o Nothing by mouth
ODB Ontario Drug Benefit
OTC Over-the-counter
ou Both eyes
pc after meals
p.o by mouth
prn as needed
q.a.m everyday before noon
QD qd everyday
q.o.d every other day
q.p.m everyday after noon (every night)
q_h (q6h) every 1,2,3,4 etc hours
q.h every hour
q.i.d four times daily
Rx prescription
S.c subcutaneous
SL, sl sublingual
stat immediately
t.i.d three times a day/ three times daily
tab tablet
Tx treatment
ung ointment
x 3 days times 3 days



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