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The energy that results from the breaking or formation of chemical bonds is chemical energy
"In any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed" is a statement of the law of conservation of energy
The specific heat of a given substance is unique to that substance
A temperature that is equivalent to 20 degrees Celsius 293 K
For every investigation, the scientific method is a logical set of procedures
The reason for organizing, analyzing, and classifying data is to find relationships among the data
There are ______ variables represented in the weather graphs four
Of the items depicted, only _______ is not a model. figure d
A plausible explanation of a body of observed natural phenomena is a scientific theory
The matter diagram represent a(n) theory
A theory is an accepted explanation of an observed phenomenon until repeated data and observation conflict with the theory
Poor precision in scientific measurement may arise from both human error and the limitations of the measuring instrument
precision pertains to all of the following except closeness of a measurement to an accepted value
Five darts strike near the center of the target. Whoever threw the darts is both accurate and precise
A chemist who frequently carries out a complex experiment is likely to have high precision
When applied to scientific measurements, the word accuracy and precision have distinctly different meanings
When determining the number of significant digits in a measurement, all nonzero digits are significant
To two significant figures, the measurement 0.0255 g should be reported as 0.026 g
In division and multiplication, the answer must not have more significant figures than the number in the calculation with the fewest significant figures
The number of significant figures in the measurement 170.040 km is 6
The measurement that has been expressed to four significant figures is 30.00 mm
What is the density of 37.72 g of matter whose volume is 6.80 cm ^3 5.55 g/cm^3
The dimensions of a rectangular solid are measured to be 1.27 cm, 1.3 cm, and 2.5 cm. The volume should be recorded as 4.1 cm^3
Three samples of 0.12g, 1.8g, and 0.562 g are mixed together. The combined mass of all three samples, expressed to the correct number of significant figures, should be recorded as 2.5 g
Expressed in scientific notation, 0.0930 m is 9.3 ' 10^-2 m.
When 6.02 ' 10^23 is multiplied by 9.1 ' 10^/31 the product is 5.5' 10^-7
The law of conservation of mass follows from the concept that atoms are indivisible
The composition of the two oxides of lead, PbO and PbO2, are explained by law of multiple proportions
Who first proposed an atomic theory based on scientific knowledge? John Dalton
According to Dalton's atomic theory, atoms of each element are identical in size, mass, and other properites.
Which of the following is NOT part of Dalton's atomic theory? The number of protons in an atom is its atomic number.
The law of definite proportions was explained by Dalton's atomic theory.
In a cathode tube, electrical current passes from one electrode, the _______, to the oppositely charged electrode. cathode
Experiments with cathode rays led to the discovery of the electron
Who explained the behavior of positively charged particles being deflected from a metal foil as the nucleus? Ernest Rutherford
In a gold foil experiment, most of the particles fired at the foil passed through the foil
The gold foil experiment led to the discovery of the nucleus
What did Rutherford conclude about the structure of the atom> An atom contains a small, dense, positively charged central region
A nuclear particle that has about the same mass as a proton, but with no electrical charge is called a(n) neutron
Which part of an atom has a mass approximately equal to 1/2000 of the mass of a common hydrogen atom? electron
The mass of a neutron is about the same as that of a proton
The nucleus of most atoms is composed of tightly packed protons and neutrons
Protons and neutrons strongly attract when they are very close together
An aluminum isotope consists of 13 protons, 13 electrons, and 14 neutrons. Its mass number is 27
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses
Atoms of the same element that have different masses are called isotopes
Isotopes of an element contain different numbers of neutrons
When the light from excited atoms of an element is passed through a prism, the distinct colored lines produced are called line-emission spectra
Bohr's theory helped explain why excited hydrogen gas gives off certain colors of light
According to Bohr's theory, an excited atom would radiate energy
If electrons in an atom have the lowest possible energies, the electrons are in their ground states
For an electron in an atom to change from the ground state to an excited state energy must be absorded
Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by the electron cloud
The main energy levels of an atom are indicated by the principal quantum numbers
The letter designations for the first four sublevels, with the number of electrons that can be accommodated in each sublevel are s2; p6; d10; and f14
The number of obitals for the d sublevel is 5
The statement that an electron occupies the lowest available energy orbital is that aufbau principle
"Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin" is a statment of Hund's rule
The statement that no more than two electrons in the same atom can occupy a single orbital is the Pauli exclusion principle
Which of the following rules requires that each of the p orbitals at a particular energy level receive one electron before any of them can have two electrons? Hund's rule
Two electrons in the 1s orbital must have different spin quantum numbers to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle
The sequence in which energy sublevels are filled is specific by aufbau principle
Which is the ground-state electron configuration for 24 Cr? [Ar] 4s^1 3d^5
The carbon-12 atom is assigned a relative mass of exactly 12 amu
The abbreviation for atomic mass unit is amu
The idea of arranging the elements in a table according to their chemical and physical properties is attributed to Newlands
From gaps in his table, Mendeleev predicted the existence of several element and their properties
Mendeleev is credited with developing the first successful periodic table
The principle that states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers is the periodic law
The period law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are functions of their atomic numbers
Elements in a group or column in the periodic table can be expected to have similar properties
The atomic number of sodium, the first element in Period 3, is 11. The atomic number of the second element in this period is 12
Elements in a group have similar electron configurations
An element that has an electron configuration of [He] 2s^2 2p^3 is in Period _______ of the periodic table 2
An element that has an electron of [Ne] 3s^2 3p^3 is in Group ____ of the periodic table. 15
To which group of the periodic table do lithium and potassium belong to alkali metals
To which group of the periodic table do fluorine and chlorine belong to? halogens
The outer electron configuration of an alkali metal has 1 electron in the s orbital
The element in Group 17 are known by what name? halogens
Transition elements are found in which of the following group(s) of the periodic table? Groups 3-12
An element that has four electrons in its outermost s orbital is a member of what group in the periodic table Group 5
Moving from left to right across _______, electrons are being added to the 4f orbitals. the lanthanides
A property of all the actinides is that they are Both members of Period 7 and radioactive
A metal is called malleable if it can be hammered into sheets
A solution of two or more metals is an alloy
Trends in the properties of elements in a group or period can be explained in terms of electron configuration
The effect of inner electrons on the attraction between the nucleus and the outer electrons of an atom is called electron shielding
Trends in the periodic table indicate that the element with the greatest ionization energy is in which of the following periods and groups? Period 1, Group 18
One method of measuring the size of an atom involves calculating a value that is ______ the distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms half
Going down a group in the periodic table, electron shielding generally causes the effective nuclear charge to decrease
Going across a period in the periodic table, electron shielding generally has little effect. As a result, the effective nuclear charge increases
Which is the best reason that the atomic radius generally increases with atomic number in each group of elements? The number of energy levels increases
For the alkaline-earth metals with the smallest radii have the highest ionization energies
Trends in the periodic table indicate that an element in which of the following periods and groups will have the smallest anion (negative ion) radius? Period 7, Group 1
Electron affinity tends to increase across a period and decrease down a group
The process that changes one element into another different element is called transmutation
Which of the following electron configurations belongs to an element that is NOT chemically reactive 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
In the compound sodium fluoride, NaF, the sodium atom loses one electron and the fluorine atoms gains one electron to form ions that have electron configurations similar to neon
In many compound, atoms of the main-group elements form ions so that the number of electrons in the outermost energy levels of each ion is 8
The electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2p3. How many more electrons does nitrogen need to have an electron configuration similar to neon 3
Atoms of copper and iron tend to form cations
An anion is an ion with a negative charge
When the octet rule is satisfied, the outermost _______ are filled s and p orbitals
The elements of the _____ groups satisfy the octet rule without forming compounds noble gas
Once an atom has full s and p orbitals in its outermost energy level, it has a stable octet and is unreactive
An ion and its parent atom have the same atomic number
The energy released when a salt is formed from gaseous ions is called the lattice energy
The lattice energy is a measure of the strength of an ionic bond
If the lattice energy of compound A is greater than that of compound B, the bonds in compound A are stronger than the bonds in compound B
When ions are formed, energy can be released or absorbed
When an electron is added to an atom, energy is usually released
Which of the following is NOT a property of an ionic compound? low boiling point
Compared with ionic compound, molecular compounds have lower melting points
The melting points of ionic compound are higher than the melting points of molecular compounds because attractive forces between ions are greater than the attractive forces between molecules
Because ions are more strongly attracted in an ionic compound than molecules are attracted in molecular compounds, the melting points of ionic compounds are higher than the melting points of molecular compounds
Ionic compounds are brittle because the strong attractive forces hold the layers in relatively fixed positions
In the NaCl crystal, each Na+ and Cl- ion has clustered around it ____ of the oppositely charged ions 6
In a crystal of an ionic compound, each cation is surrounded by anions
A compound that has the same number of positive and negative charges is said to be electroneutral
What is the ratio of cations to anions in a compound composed of sodium ions, Na+, and carbonate ions, Co3 (2-charge) 2 to 1
The indium (II) ion and indium (III) ion have charges of 2+ and 3+, respectively
What is the metallic ion in the compound CuCl2 Cu 2+
What is the formula for the compound formed by calcium ions, Ca 2+, and chloride ions, Cl-? CaCl2
The chemical formula for an ionic compound represents the simplest ration of ions that results in an electrically neutral compound
The symbol HCO3 - represents a polyatomic ion
A comparison of calcium sulfate and calcium sulfite shows that both have a monatomic cation and polyatomic anion
What is the formula for the compound formed by lead (II) ions and chromate ions, CrO4 2-? PbCrO4
What is the formula for the compound formed by aluminum (III) and the sulfate ion, SO4 2-? Sl2(SO4)3
What is the formula for the compound formed by tin (IV) and the chromate ion, CrO4 (2- charge) Sn(CrO4)2
What is the formula for the compound formed by the barium ion, Ba (2+), and the hydroxide ion, OH (-1)? Ba(OH)2
Name the compound Ni(ClO3)2 nickel chlorate
Name the compound Zn3(PO4)2 zinc phosphate
Name the compound Hg2(NO3)2 mercury (1) nitrate
Name the compound KClO3 potassium chlorate
Name the compound Fe(NO2)2 iron (II) nitrite
Name the compound CuCO3 copper (II) carbonate
What is the name of Sn3(PO4)4 tin(IV) phosphate
The name of a polyatomic ion that contains hydrogen begins with the term hydrogen
The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond are valence electrons
The chemical bond formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons is a(n) covalent bond
If two covalently bonded atoms move farther that a distance of the bond length, the potential energy of the atoms increases
A covalent bond forms when the attraction between two atoms is balanced by repulsion and the potential energy is at a minimum
Which of the following compounds most likely has the least bond energy? I2; I-I bond length = 266 pm
A nonpolar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of 0.1
An ionic bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of 3.0
A polar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of 1.5
Which of the following molecular formulas show that polar nature of the HBr molecule? H+ Br-
Which of the following substances most likely has the lowest boiling point? Cl2
The correct Lewis structure for the oxygen atom has two pairs of valence electrons and two single valence electrons
The correct Lewis structure for the boron atom has three single valence electrons
The correct Lewis structure for a Group 18 atom has four pairs of valence electrons
The correct Lewis structure for a fluorine atom in a molecule of F2 shows All of the above
To draw the Lewis structure of the polyatomic ion, ClO3 - , you would have to _______ those in the structures of Cl, O, O, and O add one electron to
In a double bond, two atoms share a total of ______ electrons four
The correct Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound C2H2 contains one triple bond
To indicate resonance, a ______ is placed between a molecule's resonance structure double headed arrow
Which of the following number of atoms can form a tetrahedral molecule five
According to VSEPR theory, which of the following shapes is possible for a molecule with the molecular formula AB2 both linear and bent
According to the VSEPR theory, which of the following shaoes is possible for a molecule with the molecular formula of AB3 both trigonal planar and trigonal pyrimidal
According to the VSEPR theory, a molecule with the molecular formul of A2 is linear in shape
According to VSEPR theory, the molecular shape of CO2 is classified as linear
According to the VSEPR theory, the molecular shape of H2O is classified as bent
Iodine monochloride, ICl, has a higher boiling point than bromine, Br2, partly because ICl is a(n) polar molecular substance
The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance is called Avogadro's number
What can be said about 1 mol Ag and 1 mol Au? They contain the same number of atoms
An Avogadro's number of any element is equivalent to 6.022 ' 10^23 particles
If 0.500 mol a Na+ combines with 0.500 mol of Cl- to form NaCl, how many formula units of NaCl are present 3.01 ' 10^23
Using a periodic table, what is the average atomic mass of zinc 65.39 amu
The atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008 amu. The reason that this value is not a whole number is that hydrogen has more than one isotope
A chemical formula includes the symbols of the elements in the compound and subscripts that indicate the number of atoms or ions of each type
How many atoms of fluorine are in a molecule of carbon tetraflouride, CF4? 4
Changing a subscript in a correctly written chemical formula changes the formula so that it no longer represents that compound
A formula that shows the simplest whole-number ration of the atoms in a compound is the empirical formula
The molar mass of an element is the mass of one mole of the element
To determine the molar mass of an element, one must know the element's average atomic mass
What is the molar mass of magnesium? 24.305 g
What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 31.9% potassium, 28.9% chlorine, and 39.2% oxygen KClO3
What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 43.6% phosphorus and 56.4% oxygen? P2O5
What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 53.3% O and 46.7% Si? SiO2
A compound contains 64 g of O and 4g of H. What is the empirical formula for this compound HO
A compound contains 259.2 g of F and 40.8 g of C. What is the empirical formula for this compound? CF4
What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 36.1% Ca and 63.9% Cl CaCl2
A compound contains 27.3 g of C and 72.7 g of O. What is the empirical formula for this compound? CO2
To find the molecular formula from the empirical formula, one must determine the compound's formula mass
A molecular compound has the empirical formula XY3. Which of the following is a possible molecular formula X2Y6
The molecular formula for vitamin C is C6H8O6. What is the empirical formula? C3H4O3
A compound's empirical formula is NO2. If the formula mass is 92 amu, what is the molecular formula? N2O4
What is the percentage composition of CF4? 13.6% C, 86.4% F
What is the percentage composition of CuCl2 47.267% Cu, 52.733% Cl
The percentage of sulfur in SO2 is about 50%. What is the percentage of oxygen in this compound? 50%
What is the percentage of OH- in Ca(OH)2 45.9%
The temperature of 323 K is equivalent to 50 degrees Celsius
Created by: katielucas16