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Chap 9

Physical Science Chapter 9 Vocab

Heat flows from hot to cold.
Atoms, molecules, ions, and their subatomic particles are in constant motion according to _____ kinetic-molecular model.
When you add _____ and _____ you get total internal energy (TE) potential energy (PE) and kinetic energy (KE)
Thermal energy is the _____ of all the kinetic energies of it's particles. sum
Thermal energy can only be measured as it is _____ from one system to another. transferred
When you gain kinetic energy you increase your _____ and your ______. thermal energy and your temperature
Transferring particle kinetic energy, the motion, is called_____. heating or cooling
The temp of an object is directly related to the _____. AVERAGE kinetic energy.
Fiducial points- fixed, precisely known, and easily reproducible temperature values.
Fiducial points on a thermometer freezing and boiling points of water.
The advantage of the Kelvin scale is there are NO negative numbers.
Thermal expansion - happens on particle level, when the particles gain energy and expand.
Electrical resistance- increases with increasing temperature, is a way to measure how well electricity is conducted.
Viscosity- the measure of the resistance of liquids to flow.
Heat- the quantity of thermal energy that flows from one place to another.
Conduction- when two objects of DIFFERENT temperatures touch, thermal energy moves from the hotter object to the cooler one.
Diamond- best natural conductor.
Conduction is the ______ by which ______ moves through solids. chief process, thermal energy
Convection- thermal energy carried from one location to another by a fluid (gases and liquids).
Convection current- hot fluids rise, cold fluids sink.
Radiation- thermal enegy that radiates from the source outward. (Think of sun's rays)
Thermal energy moves most efficiently though a vacuum as_____ radiant energy
Vacuum- large amounts of empty space. No particles or VERY small amounts of particles.
The ______ the temperature of a substance, the MORE electromagnetic energy is emitted. higher
Radiant energy is distinct from thermal energy in what it does to matter to move between two systems.
Radiant energy does NOT use matter to move between systems. _______ needs matter to move. thermal energy
Insulators- materials that resist the flow of thermal energy
Vacuum best insulator.
Heat capacity (C) - The relationship between the amount of thermal energy absorbed and the temperature change caused by this.
Heat capacity is the amount of _______ an object must______ to raise the temperature of something by 1 degree celsius. energy, gain
Specific heat capacity/specific heat (Csp or C)- the heat capacity per gram of material - the amount of energy that must be gained or lost to change the temp of 1g of the substance.
Latent heat of fusion- the amount of thermal energy exchanged per g of material during melting or freezing. (Lazy heat)
Latent heat of vaporization- the amount of heat it takes to change a liquid to a gas.
Freezing- phase change as a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
Melting- phase change as a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
Condensation- phase change as a substance changes from a gas to a liquid.
Vaporization- phase change as a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
Sublimation- phase change as a substance changes from a solid to a gas without passing through the intermediate state of liquid.
Deposition- phase change as a substance changes from a gas to a solid without passing through the intermediate state of liquid.
Triple point- the temperature and pressure at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases exist simultaneously.
Critical point- the temperature above which a substance willalways be a gas regardless of the pressure.
Freezing point- the temperature at which the solid and the liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atm pressure.
Boiling point- the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure on a liquid.
Created by: Gralnik-Kylie