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vocabulery module 1-7 apologia physical science

Atom The smallest stable unit of matter in creation
Molecule Two or more atoms linked together to make a substance with unique properties
Concentration The quantity of a substance within a certain volume of space
Absolute humidity The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air
Greenhouse effect The process by which certain gases (principally water, carbon dioxide, and methane) trap hear that would otherwise escape the earth and radiate into space
Humidity The moisture content of the air
Parts per million The number of molecules (or atoms) of a substance in a mixture for every one million molecules (or atoms) in that mixture
Relative humidity A quantity expressing humidity as a percentage of the maximum absolute humidity for that particular temperature
Atmosphere The mass of air surrounding a planet
Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on all objects within it
Barometer An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
Exosphere The region of the atmosphere above an altitude of 460 kilometers
Heat Energy that is being transferred
Heterosphere The upper layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists higher that 80 kilometers (50 miles) above sea level
Homosphere The lower layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists from ground level to roughly 80 kilometers (50 miles) above sea level (
Ionosphere The region of the atmosphere between the altitudes of 65 kilometers and 330 kilometers where the gases are ionized
Jet stream A narrow band of high-speed winds that circle the earth, blowing from west to east
Mesosphere The region of the atmosphere that spans altitudes of 48 kilometers to 80 kilometers (50 miles)
Stratosphere The region of the atmosphere that spans altitudes of 11 kilometers to 48 kilometers (30 miles)
Temperature A measure of the energy of motion in a substance's molecules
Thermosphere The region of the atmosphere between altitudes of 80 kilometers and 460 kilometers
Troposphere The region of the atmosphere that extends from ground level t roughly 11 kilometers (7 miles) above sea level (
Cohesion The phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension
Electrolysis Using electricity to break a molecule down into its constituent elements
Hard water Water that has certain dissolved ions in it, predominately calcium ions (
Polar molecule A molecule that has slight positive and negative charges due to an imbalance in the way electrons are shared
Solute A substance that is dissolved in a solvent
Solvent A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
Adiabatic cooling The cooling of a gas that happens when the gas expands
Condensation The process by which water vapor turns into liquid water
Percolation The process by which water passes from above the water table to below it
Residence time The average time a given molecule of water will stay in a given water source
Transpiration Emission of water vapor from plants
Epicenter The point on the surface of the earth directly above an earthquake's focus
Fault The boundary between a section of moving rock and a section of stationary rock
Plastic rock Rock that behaves like something between a liquid and a solid
Sedimentary rock Rock formed when heat, pressure, and chemical reactions cement sediments together
Air mass A large body of air with relatively uniform pressure, temperature, and humidity
Aphelion The point at which the earth is farthest from the sun
Coriolis effect The way in which the rotation of the earth bends the path of winds, sea currents, and objects that fly through different latitudes
Perihelion The point at which the earth is closest to the the sun
Weather front A boundary between two air masses
Hydrosphere The sum of all the water on the planet
Hydrologic Cycle The process by which water is exchanged between the earth's various water sources
Precipitation Water falling from the atmosphere as rain, sleet, snow, or hail
Created by: shplatzer