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Psychology

Exam III

ConceptAnswer
Freud's view of personality Id, Ego, Superego (Conscious, Preconscious, Unconscious minds)
Id Unconscious Mind
Ego Largely conscious; functions as "executive"
Superego Provides standards for judgement
Freud's Developmental Stages oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
How people defend themselves against anxiety Defense Mechanisms
Projective Tests Aim to get into the subconscious without arousing suspicion
Projective Test Examples TAT- how people express their inner feelings through the stories they make up about scenes INKBLOT- Seeks to identify people's inner feelings by how they interpret the inkblots
Humanistic Psychologists Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
How Humanists view personality Pyramid of needs: psychological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization
How Humanists assessed a person's sense of self Who are you? What do you want to be? Everyone is born good; reach self-actualization
Trait An enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way
Personality Inventory A questionnaire assessing a person's personality by asking a series of questions (Myers Briggs, MMPI)
CANOE Consciousness-self-dicipline Agreeableness-helpful, trusting Neuroticism-anxiety, insecurity, emotional Openness-flexability, variety Extraversion-drawing energy from others, sociability
Trait Theorists (individual) behaviors are different from situation to situation, thus traits matter
Social Cognitive Theorists (situation) traits are not good predictors of behaviors; do we control the environment or does it control us?
Social Cognitive Perspective Bandura personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and his social context (reciprocal determinism)
Influences that shape a person's personality from social cognitive perspective Internal cognitive factors Environmental factors Behavior
How we draw the line between normality and disorder Deviant, Distressful, Dangerous, Dysfunctional (The 4 Ds)
Medical Model approach to psychological disorders Illnesses that need to be diagnosed on the basis of symptoms and cured through therapy, often in a hospital
Bio-Psycho-Social Approach to psychological disorders Bio-evolution, individual genes, brain structure and chemistry Psycho-stress, trauma, learned helplessness, mood related perceptions Social-roles, expectations, definitions of normality and disorder
How and Why clinicians classify disorders DSM-V; disorders outlined in the DSM-V are reliable and diagnoses can be made by all professionals
Why some psychologists criticize the use of diagnostic tables Labels can make people act like the label they are given Labels can make people treat others with labels differently
OCD Preoccupied with keeping order, perfection, mentioning mental and interpersonal control, spend time adhering to plans
Depression 2+ weeks of: tiredness, feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family and friends, lost of interest in activities
Bipolar Disorder Extremely depressed or happy
Schizophrenia "split mind", disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, inappropriate emotions and actions
3 clusters of personality disorders Anxiety Odd or eccentric behaviors Dramatic or impulsive behaviors
Social Psychologists Zimbardo Put people into roles (prisoner/guard) found that people started to act like the roles they were given Thinking about others, especially when they engage in doing things that are unexpected
Attribution Theory Tendency to give casual explanations for behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Automatic Mimicry and Conformity (Ash) Unconsciously imitating others' expressions, postures, and voice tones Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Conditions that strengthen conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure 3+ people group is unanimous one admires the group's status Prior commitment to response Observes one's behavior Culture strongly encourages respect for social standard
Power of Social Influence (Milgram) Investigated the effects of authority on obedience Shock Study: told someone to shock someone wanted to see if the person would continue someone in authority was telling them what to do did study to see if Nazis were following Hitler's orders
Ash and Milgram's Studies Both studies were pressurized between following their standard and being responsive to others Milgram: participants were torn between victims pleas and experimenters orders
Social Facilitation Improved performance on a task in the presence of others
Social Loafing Tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort than when tested individually
Why we fall in love with some but not others Proximity- geographic nearness, repeated exposure increases attraction Physical Attractiveness- attraction increases with physical attraction Similarity- having similar views between individuals causes the bond of attraction to strengthen
Passionate Love An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
Companionate Love Deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
2 Factor Theory of Emotion physical arousal + cognitive appraisal Arousal from any source can enhance one's emotions
2 Things Enhanced by Companionate Love Equity-a condition in which both parties receive in proportion to what they give AND Mutual Self-Disclosure-in which partners reveal to each other intimate details about themselves
Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of others (Doing an act that has no benefit to you)
Bystander Intervention Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Decision Making Process Notice incident, interpret incident as emergency, assumes responsibility, attempts to help
Created by: mickey2230