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Research

Variables and their measurement

QuestionAnswer
A limitation of a measure in which the instrument does not register a further increase in score for the highest scoring individuals. Ceiling effect
A mental image of an observable phenomenon that is expressed in words Concept
A non-observable abstraction created for a specific research purpose; defined by observable measures such as events or behaviors Construct
The degree to which a measure matches the operational definition of the concept or construct it is said to represent Construct Validity
The degree to which items in an instrument represent all of the facets of the variable being measured. Content Validity
A method of criterion validation that reflects the relationship between a measure of interest and a criterion ("gold standard") measure, both of which have been applied within the same time frame. Concurrent Validity
When the values of variables are on a scale with a theoretically infinite number of measurable increments between each major unit Continuous Variable
A method of construct validation that reflects the degree to which two or more measures of the same phenomenon or characteristic will produce similar socres Convergent Validity
Measures the scores of which are compared to an absolute standard in order to judge an individual's performance. Criterion-Referenced
The outcome of a interest in a study Dependent Variable
When only two values are possible for a variable. Dichotomous Variable
When the value of a variable is a distinct category Discrete Variable
A method of construct validation that reflects the degree to which and instrument can distinguish between or among different phenomena or characteristics. Discriminant Validity
A subjective assessment of the degree to which an instrument appears to measure what it is designed to measure Face validity
An experiemental research design in which the effect of two or more independent variables and their interactions with one another, are evaluated Factorial Design
A limitation of a measure in which the instrument does not register a further decrease in score for the lowest scoring individuals Floor Effect
Traditionally defined as the variable that is purposefully manipulated by investigators in an effort to produce a change in outcome Independent variable
The stability of repeated measures across two or more examiners inter-rater reliability
A measure that classifies objects or characteristics in rank order with a known equal distance between categories, but that lacks a known empirical zero point. interval level of measurement
The stability of repeated measures by same examiner Intra-rater reliability
The process by which values are assigned to variables Measurement
THe difference between the true value and the observed value Measurement erreor
The extent to which repeated measurements agree with one another. Also referred to as stability, consistency and reproducibility. Measurement reliability
The degree to which a measure captures what it is intended to measure Measurement Validity
A measure that classifies ovjects or characteristics, but that lacks rank order and a known equal distance between categories Nominal level of measurement
Measures the scores of which are compared to the group's performance in order to judge and individual's performance Norm-referenced
A measure, that classifies objects or characteristics, in rank order, but that lacks the mathematical properties of a known equal distance between categories; may or may not have a natural zero point. Ordinal level of measurement
Reliability of a self-report instrument established by testing two versions of the tool that measures the same concepts or constructs Parallel Forms Reliability
A method of criterion validation that reflects the degree to which the score on a test predicts a future criterion score Predictive Validity
A measure that classifies objects or characteristics in rank order with a known equal distance between categories and a known empirical zero point. Ration level of measurement
The ability of a measure to detect change in the phenomenon of interest. responsiveness
Reliability of a self report instrument established by testing two versions of teh tool that are combined into one survey that is administered at one time; investigators separate the items and compare results for the two forms after subjects complete the Split half reliability
The extent to which observed scores are disbursed around the true score, "the standard deviation of measurement errors" obtained from repeated measures. Standard Error of measurement
A characteristic of an individual, object, or environmental condition that may take on different values. Variable
Created by: jmgenter1