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EDUC 255 pt.1

Final review

Means-end analysis a problem-solving technique that encourages identifying the goal (ends) to be attained, the current situation, and what needs to be done (means) to reduce the difference between the two conditions.
Accomodation modifying existing schemes to fit new situations
expectancy theory theory of motivation based on the belief that people's efforts to achieve depend on their expectation of reward
generalization carryover of behaviors, skills, or concepts from one setting or task to another.
free-recall learning learning of a list of items in any order
feedback information on the results of one's efforts
discrimination perception of and response to differences in stimuli
cognitive development Gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
antecedent stimuli events that precede behaviors
premack principle rule stating that enjoyable activities can be used to reinforce participation in less enjoyable activities
peg word method a strategy for memorization in which images are use to link lists of facts to a familiar set of words or numbers
peer tutoring tutoring of one student by another
allocated/allotted time time during which students have the opportunity to learn
race visible genetic characteristics of individuals that cause them to be seen as members of the same broad group (African, Asian, Caucasian)
reinforcer pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior
scaffollding support for learning an problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
socioeconomic status (SES) measure of prestige within a social group that is most often based on income and education
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) level of development immediately above a person's present level.
prerequisites Skills that a student must already have in his repertoire before a given task can be taught successfully.
new material material that is new (seriously, you should get this one)
behavioral learning theories forms of learning, such as classical conditioning and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses
assessment measure of the degree to which instructional objectives have been attained
assimilation understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes
attribution theory theory of motivation that focuses on how people explain the causes of their own successes and failures
cooperative learning An instructional approach in which students work together in groups to achieve learning goals.
differentiated instruction An approach to teaching that adapts the content, level, pace, and products of instruction to accommodate different needs of diverse students in regular classes.
engaged time Time students spend actually learning; same as time on-task.
behavioral management theories 1.positive and negative reinforcement 2. token economy 3. contingency contracts 4. time-out 5. extinction 6. punishment
Created by: thanzali