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Psych 100 Final

Social Psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Attribution Theory -Fritz Heider -The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
Dispositional Attribution attribute to the the person's stable, enduring traits
Situational Attribution attribute to the situation
Fundamental Attribution Error overestimate personality, underestimate situation
Peripheral Route Persuasion -occurs when people are influenced by peoples incidental cues -such as a speaker's attractiveness
Central Route Persuasion occurs when people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Foot-In-The-Door the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply with a larger request
Role a set of expectations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Cognitive Dissonance Theory -The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent -EX. When we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting discomfort by changing our attitudes
Conformity adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Social Facilitation Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Social Loafing The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal when individually accountable
Deindividualization Loss of self-awareness in group situations
Group Polarization Beliefs and attitudes we bring to the group grow stronger as discussed
Group Think Harmonious but unrealistic group thinking
Democratic -Highest levels of motivation -Worked best
Autocratic -Made all decisions by themselves -Boys worked hardest -More aggressive
Laissez-faire -Allow complete freedom -Little was accomplished
Prejudice -Means "prejudgement" -An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members -Three-part mixture of beliefs(stereotypes), emotions, and predisposition to discriminatory action
Stereotype a generalized belief about a group of people
Discrimination Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Just-World Phenomenon The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
In-group -"Us" -people with whom we share a common identity
Outgroup -"Them" -those perceived as different or apart from our in-group
In-group Bias The tendency to favor our own group
Scapegoat Theory The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior due to environment
Associative Learning -Learning that certain events occur together -The events may be two stimuli or a response and its consequence
Stimulus -any event or situation that evokes a response -thing that causes behavior
Response -behavior
Behaviorism -The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes -Most psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) -Behaviorists only study overt behavior
Classical Conditioning -Associative -S + S --> R -pairing of 2 stimuli occurring in the same environment -involuntary behaviors <-- ANS
Respondent Behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
Neutral Stimulus -Thing before conditioning that doesn't naturally cause behavior -becomes CS
Unconditioned Response -Behavior naturally occurring to a US
Unconditioned Stimulus -Thing before conditioning that naturally causes behavior or UR
Conditioned Stimulus -Formerly a NS -Thing after conditioning that causes CR
Conditioned Response -Behavior after conditioning -Caused by CS (formerly NS)
Acquisition (CC) -initial learning of the stimulus-response relationship -when one links a NS and a US so that the NS begins triggering the CS
Extinction (CC) -the diminishing of a conditioned response -occurs in CC when a US does not follow a CS
Acquisition (OC) the strengthening of a reinforced response
Extinction (OC) when a response is no longer reinforced
Spontaneous Recovery (CC) the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization (CC) the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Discrimination (CC) the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
Operant Conditioning -a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher -Voluntary, somatic -Antecedents --> Behavior--> Consequence
Law of Effect -Thorndike -behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Shaping (OC) reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Reinforcement increase behavior
Punishment decrease behavior
Positive Reinforcement The presentation of a desired/appetitive consequence that results in an increase in the future likelihood of that behavior
Negative Reinforcement The removal of an undesired/aversive consequence that results in an increase in the future likelihood of that behavior
Positive Punishment The presentation of an undesired/aversive consequence that results in a decrease in the future likelihood of that behavior
Negative Punishment The removal a a desired/appetitive consequence that results in a decrease in the future likelihood of that behavior
Reinforcement Schedule a patter that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
Continuous Reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Fixed-Interval -reinforces a response only after after a specified time has elapsed -same, time
Fixed-Ratio -reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses -same, # of behaviors
Variable-Interval -reinforces a responses at unpredicted time intervals -average, time
Variable-Ratio -reinforces a response after an unpredicted number of responses -average, # of behaviors
Problems with Punishment -Punished behavior is suppressed, not forgotten -Punishment teaches discrimination among situations -Punishment can teach fear -Physical punishment may increase aggression by modeling aggression as a way to cope with problems
Mirror Neurons -frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so -the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
Memory the persistence of learning over tim through the storage and retrieval of information
Recall a m-retrieving info that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time -fill in the blank test
Recognition -identifying items previously learned -multiple choice test
Relearning -learning something more quickly when learning it a second time
Three Measures of Retention -Recall -Recognition -Relearning
Information-Processing Models analogies that compare human memory to a computers operations
Encoding get info to our brain
Storage retaining information that we encoded
Retrieval later on getting info out of our storage
Atkinson & Shiffrin Levels of Processing Model -three-stage model to explain our memory-forming process 1. record to-be-remembered info as a fleeting sensory memory 2. process info into STM, where we encode it through rehearsal 3. info moves into LTM for later retrieval
Sensory Memory immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system
Short-Term Memory -activated memory that holds a few brief items -such as 7 digits of a phone number while dialing
Long-Term Memory -the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system -includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Working Memory a newer understanding of STM that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from LTM
Iconic Memory a fleeting sensory memory of visual stimuli
Echoic Memory a fleeting sensory memory of auditory stimuli
Explicit Memory -declarative memory -memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
Implicit Memory -nondeclarative memory -retention independent of conscious recollection
Effortful Processing -encoding that requires attention and conscious effort -processess explicit memories
Automatic Processing -happens without our awareness -produces implicit memories unconscious encoding of incidental info such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned info, such as word-meaning
Spacing Effect the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
Shallow Processing -encoding on a very basic level -such as a word's letters or sound
Deep Processing -encodes semantically -based on the meaning of the word
Hippocampus -neural center located in the limbic system -helps process explicit memories for storage
Frontal Lobe -explicit memories -left and right process different types of memories -left: recalling a password and holding it in working memory -right: calling up a visual party scene
Cerebellum -implicit memories -forming and storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning
Basal Ganglia -implicit memories -deep brain structures involved in motor movement -facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills -learning how to ride a bike
Amygdala -emotion-related memory formation
Long-Term Potentiation -an increase in a cell's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation -believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Priming the activation, often unconsciously, of particular association in memory
Mood-Congruent Memory the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
Serial Position Effect our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Retrieval Cues bits of info that you can later use to access info for a memory
Semantics meaningfullness
Massed vs. Distributed Practice -distributed works better
Anterograde Amnesia an inability to form new memories
Retrograde Amnesia an inability to retrieve info from one's past
Ecoding Failure we cannot remember what we have not encoded
Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve the course of forgetting is initially rapid, then levels off with time
Retrieval Failure -sometimes even stored info cannot be accessed, which leads to forgetting -retrieval problems contribute to the occasional memory failures of older adults, who more frequently are frustrated by tip-of-the-tongue forgetting
Proactive Interference old info interferes with new
Retroactive Interference new info interferes with ability to remember old info
Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading info into one's memory of an event
Source Amnesia attributing to the wrong source of an event we have heard about, experienced, read about, or imagined
Phonemes the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morphemes the smallest unit that carries meaning
Grammar system of rules that enables us to communicate with an understand others
Syntax set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences
Babbling Stage -4 months -babbles many speech sounds -babbling resembles household language ("Ma-ma")
One-Word Stage -from age 1 to 2 -child speaks mostly in single words
Two-Word Stage -beginning at age 2 -child speaks mostly two-word statements
Telegraphic Speech child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
Aphasia -impairment of language -usually caused by left-hemisphere damage
Broca's Area -controls language expression -left frontal lobe -directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's Area -controls language reception -left temporal lobe -involved in language comprehension and expression
Linguistic Determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
3 Ways We Forget 1. Encoding Failure 2. Storage Decay 3. Retrieval Failure
STM Decay unless rehearsed, verbal info may be quickly forgotten
Flashbulb Memory Clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Ebbinghaus' Retention Curve As rehearsal increases, relearning time decreases
Effortful Processing Strategies -chunking -mnemonics -hierarchies
Concepts -basic components of a thought -mental grouping of similar things
Symbols mental representations of something
Prototypes mental image of best example of a category
Metacognition thinking about how you think
Insight sudden realization of a problem's solution
Conformation Bias to search for info that supports what we think and ignore things that go against
Mental Set -a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way -often a way that has been successful in the past
Hindsight Bias you knew all along
Functional Fixedness not flexible thinking
Availability Heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Framing the way an issue is posed
Overconfidence the tendency to more confident than correct
Belief Perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Parallel Processing multi-tasking
Intelligence Test assess people's mental abilities & compares them with others using numerical scores
Spearman's G -a basic intelligence predicts our abilities in varied academic areas -a general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Factor Analysis -a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items on a test -used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
Savant Syndrome a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as computation or drawing
Sternberg's Three Intelligences -analytical -creative -practical
Gardner's Multiple Intelligences our abilities are best classified into 8 independent intelligences, which include a broad range of skills beyond traditional school smarts
Creativity the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
Emotional Intelligence the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
IQ -Mental Age/Chronological Age X 100 -average score is 100
Achievement Test a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Aptitude Test a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Standardization defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Reliability consistent results
Validity a test that predicts what it is supposed to
Content Validity the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
Predictive Validity the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
Cohort a group of people from a given time period
Crystallized Intelligence -our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills -tends to increase with age
Fluid Intelligence -our ability to reason speedily and abstractly -tends to decrease during late adulthood
Psychodynamic Theories view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences
Psychoanalysis Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
Id unconscious energy
Ego -mostly conscious -makes peace b/t the id and the superego
Super ego -preconscious -internalized ideals -what is morally right and wrong
Unconscious Influences -libido -aggression -fear of death
Freuds Psychosexual Stages the childhood stage of development during which the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
Fixation a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Identification the process by which children incorporate their parent's values into their developing superegos
Defense Mechanisms tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by destroying reality
Repression banishes from consciousness, anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
Regression Retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Reaction Formation switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites
Projection Disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
Rationalization offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
Displacement shifting sexual or aggression impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
Denial refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities
Collective Unconscious -Carl Jung -shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
Projective Test a personality test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Self-Actualization -maslow -the process of fulfilling our potential
Self-Transcendence meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self
Unconditional Positive Regard -Rogers -an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Self-Concept all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves in an answer to the question "Who am I?"
Personality stable, enduring traits which includes ways of behaving, thinking, emotional, and motivation
Eyesneck -introversion/extroversion -stability/instability
Big 5 Theory -CANOE -Conscientiousness -Agreeableness -Neuroticism -Openness to experience -Extraversion
Objective Tests -more easily measured -right or wrong answers -EX: MMPI
Reciprocal Determinism -Bandura -the interacting of influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
Internal Locus of Control the ability to take responsibility for a person's downfall and fix them
External Locus of Control blaming others for you mistakes and not taking responsibility
Behavior Therapy -therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors -based on the ideas of pavlov and skinner
Counterconditioning -a behavior therapy procedure that uses classical condition to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors -includes exposure therapies and aversive therapies
Exposure Therapies -type of counterconditioning -behavioral techniques that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid -imagination or actual situations
Systematic Desensitization -type of exposure therapy -associates a pleasant realized state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli -commonly used to treat phobias
Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy -type of exposure therapy -anxiety treatment -progressively exposes people to electronic simulations of their greatest fears
Flooding -type of exposure therapy -person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear -provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
Aversive Conditioning -type of counterconditioning -associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
Token Economy -operant conditioning procedure -people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
Cognitive Therapy -teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking -based on the assumption that thoughts intervene b/t events and our emotional reactions
Beck's Depression Therapy -analyzed dreams of depressed people -found reoccurring negative themes that extended into their walking thoughts and therapy -sought to reverse clients' negative beliefs about themselves
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) -developed by Albert Ellis -confrontational cognitive therapy -vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions -cognitive reconstructing
Resistance -psychoanalysis -blocking from consciousness of anxiety -laden material
Interpretation -psychoanalysis -analysts noting supposed dream meaning, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
Transference -psychoanalysis -the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships -such as love or hatred for a parent
Client-Centered Therapy -humanistic therapy -Carl Rogers -therapists use techniques such as active-listening, accepting, empathetic environment to facilitate clients' growth
Active Listening -feature of Roger's client-centered therapy -empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
Manifest Content description of a dream in detail
Latent Content the true meaning of the dream which is hidden
Alfred Adler -proposed the inferiority complex -agreed w/ freud that childhood is important -childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation
Karen Horney -agreed w/ freud that childhood is important -childhood social, not sexual, tensions are crucial for personality formation -women have weak superegos and suffer "penis envy"
Created by: htjacobs
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