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Chapter 10 Vocab

Cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas or people
Prototype a mental image or best example of a category
Algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
Heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms
Insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Confirmation Bias a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
Fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective
Mental set a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
Functional Fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
Representativeness Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match particular prototypes
Availability Heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
Overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Framing the way an issue is posed
Belief Bias the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
Belief Perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Phoneme in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning
Grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; the study of meaning
Syntax the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Babbling stage beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One word stage the stage in speech development from about age 1 to 2 during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Two word stage beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
Linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Created by: campbellk15
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