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Psychology

PY1

TermDefinition
Reductionist An approach that breaks complex phenomenon into more simple components, implying that this is desirable because complex phenomena are best understood in terms of a simpler level of explanation.
Subjective Seeing things from a person's own perspective and therefore likely to be biased.
Lab Experiment An experiment carried out in a controlled setting. Lab experiments tend to demonstrate high experimental (internal) valididy but low ecological (external) validity, though this isn't always true.
Determinist The view that an individuals behavior is shaped or controlled by internal or external forces rather than an individuals will to do something (ie free will)
Falsify The attempt to prove something wrong.
Fixation In psychoanalytic theory, a focus on a particular stage of psycho-sexual development because of over or under gratification during the stage. The fixation is on the appropriate body organ for that stage.
GAS Model (General Adaptation Syndrome) Seyle's GAS model describes how through physiological changes in the body, an organism copes with stress in an adaptive way. The model is characterized by three progressive stages that are part of this adaptive process.
Hypothalamus A structure in the sub cortical (under the cortex) area of each hemisphere of the forebrain, that functions to regulate bodily temperature, metabolic processes such as eating and other ANS activities including emotional responses.
External Validity (Same as ecological validity) Which is the degree to which research finding can be generalized, as there are other factors such as the setting, groups of people and time.
Nomothetic An approach to research that focuses more on general laws of behavior than on the individual unique case (idiographic approach)
Nurture Those aspects of behavior that are acquired through experience eg interactions with the physical and social environment.
Neurotransmitter Chemical substances such as serotonin or dopamine which plays an important part in the workings of the nervous system by transmitting to nerve impulses across as synapse.
FAE (fundamental attribution error) The tendency that people have to explain the causes o another person's behavior in terms of their personality instead of the situational factors.
Flooding Treating phobias by exposing the patient to the feared stimulus without the gradual build up as shown in systematic desensitization.
Dopamine A neurotransmitter produced in the brain, involved in sexual desire and the sensation of pleasure. High levels of dopamine have been related to shizophrenia.
Demand characteristics A cue that makes participants unconsciously aware of the aims of a study or how the researches expect the participants to behave. This may act as an extaneous variable.
Observer bias A kind of attributional bias. Individuals tend to explain their own behavior (the actor) in external (situational) terms whereas when observing the same action in another, they would have used internal (dispositional) terms.
Adrenaline A hormone associated with arousal of the autonomic nervous system (eg. raised heart rate) and also a neurotransmitter.
Created by: livfitzsy