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Stack #176975

MCC Rad Positioning I Exam-Mods 15-21

SC Joints: name the two projections PA and either a RAO or a LAO (depending upon affected side)
SC Joints: What is the CR position for the PA projection? Mid-sag at T-3 or perp to 3rd thoracic vertebra at level of jugular notch.
SC Joints: What is demonstrated during PA projection? Superimposing of vertebral and rib shadows; medial portions of clavicles - all through PA projection.
SC Joints: Why do we do a PA instead of an AP projection? PA projection gives less magnification.
SC Joints: What is respiration during all projections? Expiration.
SC Joints: During RAO or LAO, what is degree of body rotation? 15 degrees.
SC Joints: What side is against IR for RAO? Right.
SC Joints: What structure is demonstrated during RAO? Right SC joint. The right SC joint is OPEN and the left sc joint is closed.
SC Joints: If the left side of a patient is hurting, will you do a RAO or LAO along with a PA? LAO - with left side against IR, which will open up left SC joint.
SC Joints: What is the CR position for the RAO projection? Perpendicular to right SC joint (enter at level of T-2-3).
SC Joints: Does T-3 = 3" distal to vertebral prominens? Yes.
SC Joint Technical Factors: Upright, 40" SID, small focal point, marker on side affected.
T/F? The SC joint is the only joint that articulates with the appendicular skeleton. TRUE. The clavicles are part of the appendicular skeleton and the manubrium/sternum is part of the axial skeleton.
AC joints: What are the two projections? Bilateral AP upright WITHOUT weights and bilateral AP upright WITH weights.
AC joints: What is another name for Bilateral AP upright (with or without weights)? The Pearson method.
AC Joints: Where should the CR be positioned? Perpendicular to midline of body at level of AC joints.
AC Joints: What should respiration be? Suspended.
AC Joints: What structures are demonstrated during bilateral AP projection with weights? Separation of joint space (dislocation, both, partial or complete). The joint space will be wider on separated side.
AC Joints: What should the SID be if you can get both AC joints on one cassette? 72". If you need separate cassettes/exposures due to patient size, use 40" SID.
AC Joints: What is the significance of the 72" SID? It reduces magnification.
AC Joints: Technical factors? Small focal, 72" SID (for both AC joints in one exposure), upright bucky, lead marker on affected side AND INDICATION OF WITH OR WITHOUT WEIGHTS.
AC Joints: If 72" is your SID, what will happen to your MAS as compared to what it would be at 40"? Your MAS is multiplied by 4. A 40" SID would need a mAs of 3...a 72" SID = mAs of 10.
Toes: Name the three projections: AP AxialAP Oblique w/medial rotation (30 degree part rotation)Lateral
Toes: How many phalanges?How many metatarsals?How many tarsals?How many bones in foot? Phalanges: 14Metatarsals: 5Tarsals: 7Total bones in foot: 26
Name the seven (7) tarsal bones. Medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform, cuboid, navicular, talus & calcaneus.
The big toe is also called this... the hallus.
Toes: Where should the CR be positioned for the AP Axial toe? Angled 15 degrees posteriorly at level of MTP joint.
Toes: What structures are demonstrated during AP Axial Toe? Joint spaces (open) in AP position.
Toes: Where should the CR be positioned for the lateral and AP Oblique w/medial rotation? At the MTP joint of toe.
Toes: What structures are demonstrated during AP Oblique w/medial rotation? Open IP joints and # 2-5 MTP joints.
Toes: Although we didn't do an AP Oblique w/lateral projection during our comps, what is the degree of lateral rotation? 30 degrees.
Toes - Technical factors: Small focal, 40" (room 1) SID or 115 cm (room 2); normal respiration.
What are the three (3) projections of foot? AP Axial (10 degree angle posteriously)AP Oblique w/medial rotationLateral
Foot: What does AP Axial demonstrate? AP of all metatarsals, tarsals and phalanges with spaces between all.
Foot: Where should the CR be positioned for all foot projections? Perpendicular to base of 3rd metatarsal.
Foot: What structures are demonstrated during AP oblique w/medial rotation? Interspaces betwen the lateral tarsals and 3, 4 and 5th bases of metatarsals, cuboid in profile.
Foot: What structures are demonstrated during AP oblique w/lateral rotation? Interspaces of 1st and 2nd metatarsals and between the medial and intermediate cuneiforms.
Ankle: What are the three (3) positions of the ankle? APAP Oblique w/medial rotationLateral (mediolateral)
Ankle: With the AP Oblique w/medial rotation - what are the two degrees that can be done with ankle and what does each show? 15 degrees shows ankle mortise; 45 degrees shows tib/fib articulation.
Ankle: Where should the CR be positioned during all ankle exposures? Perpendicular to ankle joint midway between malleoli or PERP TO ANKLE MORTISE.
Ankle: What structures are demonstrated during AP projection? AP of distal tib/fib and proximal talus. Tibiotalar joint space open; moderate overlapping of tib/fib articulation.
Ankle: Although we didn't set-up for AP Oblique w/LATERAL rotation on comps, what does it demonstrate? It is useful in determining fractures; tibia superimposed with fibula, subtalar joint and superior aspect of calcaneus seen.
Foot: True or False?Metatarsals will not be superimposed on laterals because of the foot's NATURAL ARCH. TRUE!
Foot: What is the significance of dorisflexing foot? It allows you to open spaces and see ankle mortise.
Ankle: What are ideal spots to fracture on foot? The lateral and medial malleouses.
True or False: RT's should always keep a year's supply of gloves, sanitary wipes and DR. Schoal's foot powder on hand in the unlikely scenario that one has to radiograph a foot, ankle or toe. TRUE!
Ankle: True or False: The tibia is the 2nd largest bone in the body. TRUE.
Foot Questions:1. What metatarsal is the longest tarsal bone?2. What metatarsal extends most posteriorly? 1. 2nd metatarsal is longest.2. 5th metatarsal extends most posterior.
Ankle: The base of the 5th metatarsal is most often fractured metatarsal...TRUE/False TRUE.
Ankle: What is the most fractured tarsal bone? Calcaneus.
Calcaneus: What are two projections? Axial (Plantodorsal or Dorsoplantar) & Lateral.
Calcaneus: What are tube angles for both Axial projections: Plantodorsal vs. Dorsoplantar? Plantodorsal: 40 degrees CEPHALIC.Dorsoplantar:40 degrees CAUDAL.
Calcaneus: Where should CR be positioned for Axial Plantodorsal? Angle tube 40 degrees cephalad; CR enters idline of plantar surface at base of 3rd metatarsal and exits midline of IR at level of malleoli.
Calcaneus: Where should CR be positioned for Lateral projection (Mediolateral)? Perp to midportion of calcaneus, 1 inch distal to medial malleolus.
Calcaneus: T/F? The sinus tarsi is found where the talus and heel sulci' meet. TRUE.
Calcaneus: The subtalar joint is made up of 3 facts...they are: anterior articular facet, middle articular facet and posterior articular facet.
Calcaneus: It articulates with _______ superiorly and with ________ posteriorly. The calcaneus articulates with the TALUS superiorly and the CUBOID posteriorly.
Lower Leg: 4 views: AP/ Lateral, AP oblique w/medial and AP oblique w/lateral rotation.
Lower Leg: CR position? Perp to midpoint of leg to include both joints.
Lower Leg: AP structures demonstrated? AP projection; proximal and distal articulations of tib/fib moderately overlapped.
Lower Leg: Lateral structures demonstrated? Superimposition at both articulating ends of tib/fib - NO SUPERIMPOSITION IN CENTER.
Lower Leg: Structures demonstrated during AP oblique with lateral rotation? Fibula superimposed with lateral portion of tibia. No t/b/fib space.
Lower Leg: Structures demonstrated during AP oblique with medial rotation? Greater osseous space between tib/fib.
Created by: raymondafradella