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O2equip & Infec cont

Respiratory Care

How a Paramagnetic Analyzer Works O2 and NO are bipolar and attracted to a magnetic field. -When O2 is added to analyzer, it effects the magnetic field, causing sphere to rotate. Light & mirror give off a color to scale of # of O2 molecules.
Advantages of a Paramagnetic Analyzer -very accurate -can be used in a flammable environment -can be used with almost any gas mixture (except N2O)
Disadvantages of a Paramagnetic Analyzer -fragile and position dependent -must be on a flat surface to work properly -expensive -only for intermittent testing / not continuous
How a Thermal Conductivity Analyzer Works -uses a wheat stone bridge(simple circuit)
Disadvantages of a Thermal Conductivity Analyzer -other gases may affect cooling effects -can NOT be used in a flammable environment -not as accurate
How a Polarographic Analyzer Works (electro-chemical analyzer) -uses a Clark electrode. Gold (+) and silver anode (-) -Semi-permeable Teflon membrane -KCL for electrolytic gel --> surrounding cathode and anode. -The current displays as % O2 but actually measures the # of o2 molecules of pO2
Advantages of a Polarographic Analyzer -Fast response time -Continuous measurements -CAN be used in a flammable environment
Disadvantages of a Polarographic Analyzer -electrodes consume quickly (ware out 2-3 months) -Fragile -Humidity on membrane alters accuracy -Altitude or barometric pressure DEPENDENT
How a Galvanic cell analyzer works (another type of electro-chemical analyzer) -No battery (same cathode / anodes concept as the polarographic) -uses Pb instead of Ag -KOH electrolytic solution -Slower reaction time
Galvanic Cell Analyzer Advantages -Continuous measurement -Use in flammable environment -Electrodes have a longer lifetime
Galvanic Cell Analyzer Disadvantages -Expensive -Slower response time -Atmosphere dependent
How Chemical Analyzers Work -measures % volume of a sample gas -all 02 absorbed from sample
Disadvantages of Chemical Analyzer -Very expensive -Not typically used at a bed side -Used in laboratories
How a spectrophotometer Analyzer Works -molecules identified by mass to volume ratio -sample gas molecule ionized by a stream of electrons, accelerated in a chamber, and deflected by a magnetic field -Ions counted on a collector plate
Advantages & Disadvantages of a Spectrophotometer Analyzer -Accurate -Monitor more than 1 patient at a time Disadvantages: Very Expensive
Pulse Oximetry -LED light shines through finger and wave forms -photo detector -compares base line diastole and systole -deoxy and oxy hem have very different light wave absorption patterns
Transcutaneous PO2 - used in infants, newborns, wound care -non invasive. electrode placed on skin with conductor gel -O2 diffuses from skin into electrode & is analyzed -uses cathode & anode -CAN also analyze CO2! -has to be moved every 2-3 hrs to prevent burns
Capnography: CO2 levels =measures exhaled CO2 (waste product of metabolism) -Co2 levels, when exhaled rise, and then plateau (alveolar plateau) -Residual volume is left at the end of exhalation in lungs
Iatrogenic Complications Any complication associated with health care provider services
Nosocomial Infection Any infection a patient acquires that he / she did not enter the health care facility with
Direct Contact is defined as Body surface to body surface transfer between host and infected person. Ex: mucus to mucus, or skin contact
Indirect is defined as Contact between host and a contaminated object ex: clothing, dressings, instruments, catheters, nebulizers, needles
3 things Infection Control Procedures aim to do 1. Monitor the effectiveness of control measures 2. Eliminate the sources of infectious agents 3. Create barriers to their transmission
3 elements that must be present for infection to spread Source of pathogen --> Route (means of transmission) --> Host
Cleaning is defined as Removal of foreign material. Wash with soap / detergent enzymatic products and hot water.
Disinfection is defined as Killing vegetative forms of organisms, but NOT spores. -Pasteurization is the most common physical method
Sterilization is defined as Eliminating ALL forms of microbial life (destroys ALL microorganisms) including spores --Steam sterilization is the most common & easiest
Respiratory Care Equipment that can spread pathogens Nebulizers, Ventilator Circuits, bag-valve-mask devices and suction equipment. -O2 therapy and pulmonary function equipment are also implicated as potential sources of nosocomial infections
Describe Pasteurization (physical agents) -Moist heat to coagulate all cell proteins (72C for 5 min, and 63C for 30 min) -Kills all vegetative bacteria and some viruses (HIV) -Dried and packaged after process
Describe Boiling (physical agents) -Kills vegetative bacteria, fungi, viruses -spores are NOT killed -NOT RECOMMENDED FOR RC EQUIPMENT -100 C for 5 minutes -Dry and packaged after process
Describe Steam Autoclave Steam Under Pressure **MOST efficient method of sterilization -Takes a lot of Equipment Prep: disassemble, clean, package, use of porous packaging -Sterilization occurs due to transfer of heat -to sterilize it takes 1 1/2 the holding time
Define Holding Time The minimum time needed to kill spores
Disadvantages of Steam Autoclave Deterioration of materials Ex: can't use with rubber, plastics, solutions, sharp instruments
Use of Ethylene Oxide -used for heat sensitive items (rubber / plastic) -toxic gas use and could residue on items -expensive and time consuming (12-24 hours) -but is an effective sterilization process
Use of Glutaraldehyde -Useful to disinfect but also can sterilize -must rinse and package items after process -immerse items fully into solution
Use of Alcohol -can kill bacteria and viruses , NOT spores -need several minutes of exposure and needs to air dry -Ethyl & isopropyl alcohol are the most common -Works by destroying cell membranes -Useful on the skin as an antiseptic / disinfectant (2%)
Use of Iodines -can kill bacteria (TB), viruses, fungi -5 min exposure -Stains badly on clothes / skin -
Use of Ionizing Radiaiton -use of gamma and x rays -very effective and rapid -but very expensive -long shelf life
Created by: nnbernard
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