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PHM 1350 Final Pt 2

Study Guide - Terms/Abbreviations

TermDefinition
bid twice a day
d day
h hour
IV intravenous(ly)
npo nothing by mouth
q every
q3h every 3 hours
qid four times a day
qod every other day
tid three times a day
Ca Calcium
Cl Chlorine (Chloride)
HCO3 bicarbonate
K Potassium
mEq milliequivalent
Mg Magnesium
mM millimole
Na Sodium
PO4 phosphate
SO4 sulfate
additive substance added to a compounded preparation
administration delivery of a drug product to the body
admixture combination of 2 or more pharmaceutical products for administration as a unit
compounding preparation of a drug for dispensing pursuant to a practitioner’s order
formulary approved drug list for an organization or institution
microorganism microscopic living organism
parenteral administration via a route outside the alimentary tract
pyrogen substance that causes fever
route the way in which a drug is delivered to the body
sterile free of microorganisms and microbial byproducts
PharmD Doctor of Pharmacy
active ingredient substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease
aseptic technique procedures followed under controlled conditions in a manner that minimizes chance of contamination by introduction of microorganisms
ampule sealed glass container which must be broken to remove the fluid it contains
bevel diagonal cut of a needle shaft
coring dislodging part of the stopper of a vial or an injection port into the solution inside the container
flange rim around the barrel of a syringe
gauge designation of needle size (higher for a finer needle)
hub Part of the needle to which a syringe can be attached
injection port Part of a plastic IV fluid bag designed to allow injection of medication
Luer lock threaded tip on many syringes to hold needle in place
lumen hollow bore of a needle shaft
plunger piston-type rod with cone-shaped tip inside the syringe barrel
vial glass or plastic container sealed with a rubber or synthetic stopper
Policy and Procedure Manual Document detailing how things are done at a particular site or workplace
IVPB intravenous piggyback
LVP large volume parenteral (> 250 mL)
PPE personal protective (or protection) equipment
SVP small volume parenteral (< 250 mL)
critical work surface space between the HEPA filter and the sterile product being prepared
HEPA filter High Efficiency Particulate Air filter (removes 99.97% of all airborne particles > 0.3 μm)
ISO Class 5 having fewer than 100 particles > 0.5 microns per cubic foot
micron one millionth of a meter (0.001 mm or 0.00004 inches)
USP 797 official document detailing procedures and requirements for compounding sterile preparations
vehicle substance, often without therapeutic action, used as a carrier for an active ingredient
ASHP American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
CAI Compounding Aseptic Isolator
IPA Isopropyl alcohol
LAFW Laminar AirFlow Workbench
SWFI Sterile water for injection
Aqueous (aq.) having water as the only (or primary) solvent
beyond-use date (BUD) date by which a preparation should be used or returned to the pharmacy
diluent liquid added to a product during reconstitution or dilution
expiration date last date on which unopened product may be used, assigned by manufacturer
reconstitution process of adding liquid to a drug in powder form
solution one-phase homogeneous system in which a solute is dispersed in a solvent in molecular or ionic sized particles.
D.O. Doctor of Osteopathy
M.D. Medical Doctor
buffer capacity Ability of solution to resist change in pH when acidic or basic substances are added
clarity Confirmation that medication is completely dissolved and solution free of particulate matter.
isotonic Describes concentration of dissolved substances approximating that of red blood cells.
hypertonic Describes a concentration of dissolved substances higher than that of red blood cells.
precipitation Formation of solid particles that settle out of a solution
stability Extent to which compound retains the properties it possessed at the time of admixture
pH Indicates the degree of acidity of a solution
maintenance therapy IV solutions given to supply a patient’s routine fluid and electrolyte needs
replacement therapy IV solutions given to restore fluids when patients have losses from trauma or burns
incompatibility Physicochemical phenomenon which results in an undesirable change in an admixture
hypotonic Describes a concentration of dissolved substances lower than that of red blood cells.
continuous infusion administration of larger volumes over several hours at a slow, constant rate
enteral Via or involving the alimentary (digestive) tract
Home care Pharmacy practice that provides IV medications and services to outpatients.
injection administration of a relatively small volume directly from a syringe
intermittent infusion administration of medication doses at periodic intervals
IV Push intravenous injection over a short period
parenteral Bypassing the alimentary tract (injections, inhalations, etc)
subcutaneous injection injection of a drug or implantation of a device beneath the surface of the skin
prophylaxis disease prevention
generic name name of a drug which is common no matter what company manufactures it.
indication reason, condition, or use for which a drug is prescribed
brand name trademarked name owned by an individual manufacturer
central vein large vein near the heart
macronutrients amino acids, dextrose, and lipids (form “base solution” for nutrient admixture)
micronutrients electrolytes, vitamins, and trace elements added to parenteral nutrition solutions
peripheral vein smaller vein further from the heart (e.g., arm, leg)
TNA Total Nutrient Admixture
TPN Total Parenteral Nutrition
trace elements elements needed by the body in very small amounts, including zinc, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium, iodine and molybdenum
antineoplastic inhibiting or killing tumor cells (“against cancer”)
biological safety cabinet a sterile environment for safe manipulation of cytotoxic and biohazardous materials
cytotoxic poisonous to cells, preventing their reproduction or growth
oncologist physician who specializes in cancer treatment
ALARA As little as reasonably achievable
CACI Compounding aseptic containment isolator
CSTD Closed system drug transfer device
HD Hazardous drug
IVIG intravenous immune globulin
MPF Methylparaben-Free (preservative free)
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
PEC Primary engineering control
SCA Segregated compounding area
End product validation Visual inspection to ensure the absence of particulates in solutions,absence of leakage from vials or bags, accuracy of labeling, review to ensure correct ingredients/amounts; sometimes batch sampling
Media fill challenge test process simulation with a medium that supports microbial growth
Process validation Mechanism of ensuring that processes consistently result in sterile products of acceptable quality
Quality assurance Process to ensure that products or services meet appropriate or predetermined standards
List the 5 “rights” of Pharmacy Quality Patient, medication, dose, time, route of administration
ADD-vantage diluent container which mates with threaded drug vial for point-of care activation
autoclave sterilizing device which subjects its contents to a combination of heat and high pressure
closed transfer packaging Needle-less system for dispensing drug with vehicle for point-of care reconstitution
Mini-Bag Plus point-of-care activated delivery system consisting of a diluent container with a built-in vial adapter
Three main functions of the laminar air flow workbench fans and filters provides clean air in the working area and prevents room air from entering the working area suspends and removes contaminants introduced by materials or personnel
Isotonic solution examples D5W, NS, LR, Ringer’s
List four routes of administration (other than intravenous) requiring sterile products, intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous, intrathecal, epidural ophthalmic, inhalation, intranasal
Advantages and Disadvantages of IV administration Advantages - most rapid onset of action, can be used for irritating drugs, completely available to the body Disadvantages - requires skills and equipment to administer, may cause complications (emboli, thrombosis, phlebitis, infiltration, extravasation )
Parts of NDC number AAAA-BBBB-CC AAAA - labeler code (manufacturer or repackager) BBBB - product code - drug, dosage form, and dose CC - package code (package size)
overfill Contents of IV bag in excess of labeled volume which must be removed for precision drips
PCA Patient-controlled Analgesia
Two types of whole protein injections immune globulins clotting factors
precautions used with whole protein injections Do not shake or use NS, follow instructions
Two routes of intraspinal administration intrathecal, epidural
Two indications for instraspinal administration pain, spasticity
Which facilities and equipment must be certified/verified for air quality? PECs, buffer and ante rooms
2 examples of non-injectable sterile preparations compounded in pharmacy ophthalmic, irrigation, inhalation, dialysis solution
2 uses for irrigation solutions bladder care, wound care, surgical procedures
Pore size of filter used for sterilization 0.22 μm (micron)
Two advantages of closed-transfer packaging Vial stays attached for identification LAFW and refrigeration unnecessary, reduces waste,
Two disadvantages of closed-transfer packaging require training for use limited drugs/doses/sizes
Aseptic Technique principles (2): DO NOT use syringes whose gradations are greater than twice the precision of the volume being measured because syringes are accurate only to one-half of the smallest increment of the barrel markings Choose a syringe the next size larger than the volume being measured. Ideally, the syringe should be filled to between 50% and 90% of its capacity.
Created by: pharmteach