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Paramedic Care

Cardiac

QuestionAnswer
aberrant conduction an abnormal conduction of the electrical impulse through the heart's conductive system
absolute refractory period period of the cardiac cycle when stimulation will not produce any depolarization
action potential stimulation of myocardial cells that subsequently spreads across the myocardium
acute arterial occlusion sudden occlusion of arterial blood flow
acute coronary syndrome (ACS) spectrum of coronary artery disease processes from myocardial ischemia and myocardial injury to myocardial infarction
acute pulmonary embolism blockage that occurs when a blood clot or other particle lodges in a pulmonary artery
afterload resistance against which the heart must pump
anastomosis communication b/w two or more vessels
aneurysm dilation of a blood vessel
angina pectoris chest pain that results when the heart's oxygen requirements exceed oxygen supply available from blood
arrhythmia any deviation from the normal electrical rhythm of the heart
arteriosclerosis progressive, degenerative disease of the midsize and large arteries
augmented leads another term for unipolar limb leads, reflecting the fact that the ground lead is disconnected, which increases the amplitude of deflection of the ECG tracing
automaticity pacemaker cells' capability of self-depolarization
bipolar leads electrocardiogram leads applied to the arms and legs that contain two electrodes of opposite polarity (positive and negative)
bradycardia heart rate less than 60 bpm
bruit sound of turbulent flood flow through a vessel
bundle branch block kind of interventricular heart block in which conduction through either the right or left bundle branch is blocked or delayed
bundle of Kent an accessory AV conduction pathway that is thought to be responsible for ECG findings of preexcitation syndrome
cardiac arrest absence of ventricular contraction
cardiac cycle period of time from the end of one cardiac contraction to the end of the next
cardiac depolarization reversal of charges at a cell membrane so that the inside of the cell becomes positive in relation of the outside; opposite of the cell's resting state
cardiac output amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute
cardiac tamponade accumulation of excess fluid inside the pericardium
cardiogenic shock inability of the heart to meet the metabolic needs of the body, resulting in inadequate perfusion
cardiovascular disease (CVD) disease affecting the heart, peripheral blood vessels, or both
chronotrophy pertaining to heart rate
claudication severe pain in the calf muscle due to inadequate blood supply
compensatory pause pause following an ectopic beat where the SA node is unaffected and the cadence of the heart is uninterrupted
conductivity ability of the cells to propagate the electrical impulse from one cell to another
congestive heart failure (CHF) condition in which the heart's reduced stroke volume causes an overload of fluid in the body's other tissues
contractility ability of muscle cells to contract, or shorten
coronary artery disease (CAD) type of CVD; single largest killer of Americans
corrected QT QT interval divided by the square root of the RR interval
coupling interval distance b/w the preceding beat and the PVC
current of injury (injury current) the flow of current b/w the pathologically depolarized area of myocardial injury and the normally depolarized areas of the myocardium
cystic medial necrosis death or degeneration of a part of an artery wall
deep venous thrombosis a blood clot in a vein
defibrillation process of passing an electrical current through a fibrillating heart to depolarize a critical mass of myocardial cells
diastole period of time when the myocardium is relaxed and cardiac filling and coronary perfusion occur
dissecting aortic aneurysm aneurysm caused when blood gets b/w and separates the layers of the aortic wall
downtime duration from the beginning of the cardiac arrest until effective CPR is established
dromotrophy pertaining to the speed of impulse transmission
ectopic beat cardiac depolarization resulting from depolarization of ectopic focus
ectopic focus nonpacemaker heart cell that automatically depolarizes
Einthoven's triangle triangle around the heart formed by the bipolar limb leads
ejection fraction ratio of blood pumped from the ventricle to the amount remaining at the end of diastole
electrocardiogram (ECG) graphic recording of the heart's electrical activity
excitability ability of the cells to respond to an electrical stimulus
heart failure clinical syndrome in which the heart's mechanical performance is compromised so that cardiac output cannot meet the body's needs
hypertensive emergency an acute elevation of blood pressure that requires the blood pressure to be lowered w/in 1 hour
hypertrophy stretching; enlargement w/o any additional cells
indeterminate axis a calculated axis of the heart's electrical energy from -90 to -180 degrees
induced therapeutic hypothermia (ITH) practice of cooling survivors of cardiac arrest in the immediate post resuscitation period
inotrophy pertaining to cardiac contractile force
intercalated discs specialized bands of tissue inserted b/w myocardial cells that increase the rate in which the action potential is spread from cell to cell
interpolated beat PVC that falls b/w two sinus beats w/o effectively interrupting this rhythm
left axis deviation calculated axis of the heart's electrical energy that equals or exceeds -30 degrees
limb leads augmented leads; bipolar leads; unipolar leads
myocardial infarction (MI) death and subsequent necrosis of the heart muscle caused by inadequate blood supply
myocardial injury injury to the myocardium typically following myocardial ischemia that results from loss of blood and oxygen supply
myocardial ischemia deprivation of oxygen and other nutrients to the myocardium, causing abnormalities in repolarization
myoglobin similar to hemoglobin, it is released into circulation when skeletal or cardiac muscle is damaged
noncompensatory pause pause following an ectopic beat where the SA node is depolarized and the underlying cadence of the heart is interrupted
normal sinus rhythm normal heart rhythm
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND) sudden episode of difficult breathing that occurs after lying down
peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease progressive degenerative disease of the midsize and large arteries
Poiseuille's law law of physiology stating that flood flow through a vessel is directly proportional to the radius of the vessel to the fourth power
precordial (chest) leads electrocardiogram leads applied to the chest in a patter than permits a view of the horizontal plane of the heart, leads V1-V6
preload pressure w/in the ventricles at the end of diastole; commonly called end-diastolic volume
Prinzmetal's angina variant of angina pectoris caused by vasospasm of the coronary arteries
prolonged QT interval QT greater than 0.44 sec
pulmonary embolism (PE) blood clot in one of the pulmonary arteries
QRS axis reduction of all the heart's electrical forces to a single vector represented by an arrow moving in a single plane
QT interval period from the beginning of the QRS to the end of the T wave
reciprocal mirror image seen typically on the opposite wall of the injured area
refractory period period of time when myocardial cells have not yet completely repolarized and cannot by stimulated again
relative refractory period period of the cardiac cycle when a sufficiently strong stimulus may produce depolarization
repolarization return to a muscle cell to its preexcitation resting state
resting potential normal electrical state of cardiac cells
resuscitation provision of efforts to return a spontaneous pulse and breathing
return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) resuscitation results in the patient's having a spontaneous pulse
rhythm strip electrocardiogram printout
right axis deviation a calculated axis of the heart's electrical energy that equals or exceeds +105 degrees
Starling's law of the heart law of physiology stating that the more the myocardium is stretched, the more forceful the contraction will be
stroke volume amount of blood ejected by the heart in one cardiac contraction
subendocardial infarction myocardial infarction that affects only the deeper levels of the myocardium
sudden death death w/in 1 hour after onset of symptoms
survival when a patient is resuscitated and survives to be discharged from the hospital
synchronized cardioversion the passage of an electric current through the heart during a specific part of the cardiac cycle to terminate certain kinds of dysrhythmias
syncytium group of cardiac muscle cells that physiologically function as a unit
systole period of the cardiac cycle when the myocardium is contracting
tachycardia rapid heart rate greater than 100 bpm
total downtime duration from the beginning of the arrest until the patient's delivery to the emergency department
transmural infarction myocardial infarction that affects the full thickness of the myocardium and almost always results in a pathological Q wave in the affected leads
unipolar leads electrocardiogram leads applied to the arms and legs, consisting of one polarized electrode and a nonpolarized reference point that is created by the ECG machine combining two additional electrodes
varicose veins dilated superficial veins, usually in lower extremities
vasculitis inflammation of blood vessels
vector a force that has both magnitude and direction
Created by: 100002976529457