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Ph. Science Midterm

Atom The smallest chemical unit of matter.
Molecule Two or more atoms linked together to make a substance with unique properties.
Concentration The quantity of a substance within a certain volume.
Humidity The moisture content of air.
Absolute humidity The mass of water vapor contained in a certain volume of air.
Relative humidity The ratio of the mass of water vapor in the air at a given temperature to the maximum mass of water vapor the air could hold at that temperature, expressed as a percentage.
Greenhouse effect The process by which certain gases(principally water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane)trap the heat that radiates from earth.
Atmosphere The mass of air surrounding a planet.
Barometer An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.
Homosphere The lower layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists from ground level to roughly 80 km(50 miles)above sea level.
Heterosphere The upper layer of earth's atmosphere, which exists higher than roughly 80 km(50 miles)above sea level.
Jet streams Narrow bands of high-speed winds that circle the earth, blowing from west to east.
Heat Energy that is transferred as a consequence of temperature differences.
Atmospheric pressure The pressure exerted by the atmosphere on all objects within it.
Polar molecule A molecule that has a slight positive and negative charges due to an imbalance in the way electrons are shared.
Solvent A liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances.
Solute A substance that is dissolved in a solvent.
Solution Formed when you dissolve a solute in a solvent.
Cohesion The phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension.
Hydrosphere The sum of all water on the planet.
Transpiration Evaporation of water from plants.
Condensation The process by which a gas turns into a liquid.
Adiabatic cooling The cooling of a gas that happens when a gas expands with no way of getting more energy.
Sedimentary rock Rock formed when chemical reactions cement sediments together, hardening them.
Igneous rock Rock that forms from molten rock.
Metamorphic rock Igneous or sedimentary rock that has been changed in to a new kind of rock as a result of great pressure and temperature.
Plastic rock Rock that behaves like something between a liquid and a solid.
Fault The boundary between two sections of rock that can move relaive to one another.
Epicenter The point on the surface of the earth directly above an earthquake's focus.
Aphelion The point at which the earth is farthest from the sun.
Perihelion The point at which the earth is closest to the sun.
Coriolis effect The way in which the rotation of the earth bends the path of winds, sea currents, and objects that fly through different latitudes.
Air mass A large body of air with relatively uniform air pressure, temperature, and humidity.
Updraft A current of rising air.
Insulator A substance that does not conduct electricity very well.
Metric measure of mass. Gram.
Metric measure of distance. Meter.
Metric measure of volume. Liter.
Metric measure of time. Second.
English measure of mass. Slug.
English measure of distance. Foot.
English measure of volume. Gallon.
English measure of time. Second.
What gases make up the make up the heterosphere? Oxygen, helium, hydrogen.
What region(s) in the homosphere does temperature decrease with an increase in altitude. Troposphere and mesosphere.
What region(s) in the homosphere does the temperature increase with an increase in altitude. Stratosphere (due to ozone layer)
What region is called the "weather layer" and why? The troposphere, because this is where almost all of the weather phenomena occurs.
Understand the "ozone hole" The ozone hole is caused by certain ozone-destroying agents(chlorofluorocarbons)which work only in the presence of the Polar Vortex which lifts them up into the stratosphere.Polar Vortex happens only in Antarctica,and only during fall.Deepens in fall.
Polarity Occurs when you have opposite charges within the same molecule.
Hydrogen bonding The bond that keeps water molecules close together but only when liquid.
What causes the magnetic field of the earth? The large amount of electrical current in the earth's core.
Dynamo theory Says the motion of the core is due to the temperature differences in the core and the rotation of the earth.
Rapid-decay theory Says the electrical current in the core started as a consequence of how the earth was formed and is reducing over time.
Why is the magnetic field on earth so important to us? It deflects harmful cosmic rays emitted from the sun that would otherwise hit the earth and kill all life on the planet.
What is Pangaea? A hypothetical super continent that might have existed in earth's past.
What are the 4 types of mountains? Fault-block, folded, domed, volcanic.
What are the 4 basic types of clouds? Cumulus, stratus, cirrus, lenticular.
What season is the Northern Hemisphere having at aphelion? Summer.
What season is the Northern hemisphere having at perihelion? Winter.
Created by: Raxiqwerty