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Logic

Terms and definitions from Introductory Logic

QuestionAnswer
Increasing Extension... increases abstraction
Increasing Intention... increases concreteness
Name the four combinations of quantity and quality that give us our four standard categorical statements. Universal affirmative, universal negative, particular affirmative, particular negative
Name the four letters of the square of opposition. A, E, I, O
Universal affirmative statements are also known as... A statements
Universal negative statements are also known as... E statements
Particular affirmative statements are also known as... I statements
Particular negative statements are also known as... O statements
Name the four categorical statements. All S are P, No S are P, Some S are P, Some S are not P
Define Contrariety. Both statements cannot be true, but they can both be false.
Define Subcontrariety. Both statements can be true, but they cannot both be false.
Define a Genus of a term. It is a term that is more general, broad, or abstract then the original term and includes it.
Define a Species of a term. It is a term that is more specific, narrow, or concrete than the original term and is included by it.
Define a Term. It is a concept that can be expressed precisely.
Define a Definition. It is a statement that gives the meaning of a term.
Define an Ambiguous word. It is a word has more than one definition.
Define a Vague word. It is one whose extent is unclear.
The Extension of a term is... The sum of all the individual objects described by it.
The Intension of a term is... The sum of all the common attributes denoted by the term.
Define a Statement. It is a sentence which is either true or false.
Define a Self-Supporting statement. It is a statement whose truth value can be determined from the statement itself.
A Tautology is... A statement which is always true because of its logical structure.
Define a self-contradiction. It is a statement that is false due to its logical structure.
A Supported statement is... A statement whose truth value depends on evidence or information from outside itself.
Two statements are related by Implication if... The truth of one requires the truth of the other.
Two statements are Logically Equivalent if... They imply one another.
Two statements are Independent if... The truth or falsity of one has no effect on the truth or falsity of the other.
Define the Subject of a statement. It is the term being described, or about which something is asserted.
Define the Predicate of a statement. It is the term that describes or asserts something about the subject.
The Quantity of a statement is... The scope of its claim about the extension of the subject: universal (entire extension) or particular (partial).
The Quality of a statement is... The positive or negative nature of its claim about the subject: affirmative (asserts something) or negative (denies something).
Define the Square of Opposition. It is a diagram of the basic relationships between statements with the same subject and predicate.
Define an Argument. It is a set of statements, one of which appears to be implied or supported by the others.
Define a Conclusion. It is the statement which appears to be implied by the other statements in the argument, which are called premises.
Define a Categorical Syllogism. It is a deductive argument consisting of three statements in the categorical form that together use only three terms, called the major, minor, and middle.
Define the Major term of a syllogism. It is the predicate of the conclusion and is used in the major premise.
Define the Minor term of a syllogism. It is the subject of the conclusion and is used in the minor premise.
Define the Middle term of a syllogism. It is found once in each premise.
Define the Major premise of a syllogism. It is the premise containing the major term.
Define the Minor premise of a syllogism. It is the premise containing the minor term.
Created by: JRae