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Chapter 5

Sensation the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Bottom-up Processing analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain integration of sensory information.
Top-Down Processing Information processing guided by a higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
Psychophysics the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of a stimuli, such as their intensity and our Psychological experience of them
Absolute Threshold the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
Signal Detection Theory theory predicting how and when detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes no single absolute threshold and detection depends on a person's experience expectations, motivations and level of fatigue
Subliminal Below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Difference Threshold the minimum difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time. We experience as a just noticeable difference. (AKA Just noticeable difference or jnd)
Weber's law the principle that, to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount.)
Sensory Adaptation diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
Transduction conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
Wavelength the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. Electromagnetic wavelengths vary from short blips of cosmic rays to long pulses of radio transmission.
hue the dimension of colour that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the colour names blue, green, and so forth....
Intensity the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by wave's amplitude.
Pupil the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
Iris A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.
lens the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus the image on the retina.
accommodation (not the one from chapter 4 :D) the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
Retina the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the process of visual information.
Acuity the sharpness of vision
nearsightedness a condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because distant objects focus in front of the retina.
farsightedness a condition in which faraway objects are seen more clearly than near objects because the image of the near objects is focused behind the retina.
rods retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.
Cones receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. the cone detect fine detail and gives rise to color sensations.
optic nerve the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
blind spot the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.
fovea the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.
feature detectors nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle or movement.
Parallel Processing the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic (three colour) theory the theory that the retina contains 3 different colour receptors,- one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue- which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any colour.
Opponent Process Theory the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable colour vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
Colour Constancy Perceiving familiar objects having consistent colour, even if changing illumination alters the wavelength reflected by the object.
audition the sense of hearing
frequency wavelength the number of complete wavelengths that passes through a point in a given time (for example, per second)
pitch a tone's highness or lowness; depends on frequency
middle ear the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing 3 tiny bones (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.
inner ear the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canal, and vestibular sacs.
Cochlea a coiled, bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear which sound wave triggers nerve impulses.
place theory in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated
frequency theory in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.
conduction hearing loss hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
sensorineural hearing loss hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.
gate-control theory about spinal cord contain a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allow them to pass to the brain. the"gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and closed by activity in larger fibers or by brain's info
sensory interaction principle that one's sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.
Kinesthesis the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
vestibular sense the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.
Created by: Bowenpsycho
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