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Burris--Atomic Structure--Chapter 19/25 Review

What scientist named the smallest piece of matter an atom? Democritus
What does the Greek word "atomos" mean? indivisible or not able to be cut
How many quarks make up a proton? Three
What is the definition of matter? Anything that has mass and volume
What are the building blocks of matter? atoms
What is the simplest pure substance called? element
Whose atomic model has been called the "chocolate chip cookie dough" model? J.J. Thomson
True or false. Dalton said atoms of the same element are exactly alike. true
True or false. Daltion stated that compounds are formed by the physical joining of atoms of two or more elements. false
What scientist discovered and named the nucleus of the atom? Rutherford
What is the modern atomic model called? the electron cloud model
What scientist stated that electrons move in definite orbits around the nucleus, much like planets circling the sun? Bohr
What is the overall charge of an atom? neutral
What are the three main subatomic particles? proton, neutron, and electron
What is the mass of each subatomic particle? proton and neutron each have a mass of 1 amu and electrons have a mass of 1/1836 amu
What is the charge of each subatomic particle? protons are positive, electrons are negative, and neutrons are neutral
What is the dense "core" of an atom called? nucleus
What two types of subatomic particles occur in the nucleus? protons and neutrons
How many electrons can the first three energy levels hold? the first level can hold 2 electrons, the second level can hold 8 electrons, and the third level can hold 18 electrons
What word refers only to the outermost electrons? valence
How many electrons would a cesium atom contain? 55
How many protons would a boron atom contain? 5
How many neutrons would a potassium atom contain? 20
By definition, what does the atomic number indicate? the number of protons in an atom
Why are atoms neutral overall? there are an equal number of positively and negatively charged particles
What does amu stand for? atomic mass unit
What is the definition of an isotope? atoms of the same element that differ in number of neutrons
What is the atomic mass of chlorine? 35.453 amu
What is the mass number of molybdenum? 96 amu
How many of each subatomic particle would C-14 possess? 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons
Why is the atomic mass usually not a whole number? It is the average mass of all of the known isotopes of that element.
Where are electrons found with very little energy? close to the nucleus
What determines the chemical properties of an element? the electron arrangement (number of valence electrons)
____ comprise all of the subatomic particles within the nucleus. Quarks
How many quarks make up a neutron? 3
What are the four types of forces within the atom? electromagnetic, gravity, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear
Of the four forces within the atom, which is the weakest? gravity
Of the four forces within the atom, which is responsible for radioactive decay? weak nuclear force
Of the four forces within the atom, which is responsible for keeping the negative electrons attracted to the positive nucleus? electromagnetic (electric) force
Of the four forces within the atom, which is responsible for "glueing" the protons together to form the nucleus? strong nuclear force
What is the metric prefix for 1000? kilo-
What is the metric prefix for 1/100? centi-
What is the symbol for radon? Rn
How many valence electrons does a lithium atom have? 1
What is the electron configuration of sulfur? 1st shell has 2 electrons; 2nd shell has 8 electrons; and 3rd shell has 6 electrons
What are the three types of radioactive decay? alpha, beta, and gamma
What happens to the atomic number and atomic mass during alpha decay? the atomic number goes down by 2 and the atomic mass goes down by 4
What happens to the atomic number and atomic mass during gamma decay? they stay the same
What happens to the atomic number and atomic mass during beta decay? the atomic number goes up by 1 and the atomic mass stays the same
What is the amount of time for one-half of a radioactive substance to decay? half-life
After 2 half-lifes of a radioactive substance, what fraction of the original substance remains? one-fourth
Give 4 negative side effects of a human receiving too much radiation? hair loss, reddening of the skin, mutation of DNA, drop in white blood cell count, nausea, and fatigue
True or false. We are constantly exposed to low-level radiation from natural sources such as cosmic rays and radioactivity in rocks and soil. true
Are these two elements isotopes or different elements? Element A: atomic number of 18 and atomic mass of 40. Element B: atomic number of 17 and atomic mass of 35. different elements
True or false. Half-lives vary greatly from isotope to isotope. true
After 3 half-lives, what percent of the original substance remains? 12.5%
What is the symbol for mercury? Hg
How many of each subatomic particle does Pb-210 contain? 82 electrons; 82 protons; and 128 neutrons
What type of evidence have we had to rely on about atoms to help us create models of them? indirect
Thomson discovered what subatomic particle? Electron
How do you calculate the number of neutrons in an atom? Round the atomic mass (called the mass number) and then subtract the atomic number
The mass number of an element is the number of ___ plus the number of ___. protons and neutrons
True or false. Most of the mass of an atom is found in the electron cloud. false
The atomic mass of Einsteinium is a whole number. Why is this so? There are no known isotopes of Einsteinium.
Radiation can cause a change in the DNA of an organism. What word means "to change the DNA" of an organism? mutate or mutation
What is a shorthand way of writing an element called? Symbol
From what language do some of the odd symbols such as Fe originate? Latin
What is the rounded atomic mass or weight called? Mass Number
What isotope of carbon is used to carbon date fossils and bones? Carbon-14 or C-14
How many of each subatomic particle are found in an atom of N-15? 7 protons, 7 electrons, and 8 neutrons
Are large nuclei or small nuclei in atoms held more tightly together? small nuclei are held more tightly together and large nuclei are held less tightly together. That is why large nuclei are more likely to be radioactive.
Give four sources of background radiation. radon, rocks and soil, cosmic rays, X-rays
What is the difference between nuclear fusion and nuclear fission? In nuclear fusion, two nuclei combine to produce large amounts of energy whereas nuclear fission is where a nucleus is split
What scientist disputed Democritus's atomic theory and proposed that matter is uniform throughout and is not composed of smaller particles? Aristotle
Which of the following instruments does not detect radiation? a. bubble chamber b. particle accelerator c. Geiger counter d. cloud chamber b. particle accelerator
Which scientist stated that a small amount of mass can be converted into an enormous amound of energy during nuclear reactions? Albert Einstein
What is the process of one radioactive element changing into another element called? transmutation
When B-10 is bombarded with neutrons, it absorbs an neutron and then emits an alpha particle. Identify the isotope that is formed in this process. Lithium-7
Which of the four forces within an atom, is responsible for the protons wanting to repel other protons in the nucleus? electromagnetic (electric) force
What is the most common location in the universe that the temperature is high enough for nuclear fusion to happen naturally? stars such as the Sun
When a radioisotope is put into the human body, is absorbed by various organs, and then a scan reveals where is was absorbed, what is the radioisotope referred to as? tracer
Which release the most energy: nuclear fusion or nuclear fission? nuclear fusion
Of the four forces within an atom, arrange them from shortest to longest distance over which the force acts. strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, electromagnetic force, gravity
Which of the following is able to not only detect radiation but can also measure it? a. Bubble chamber b. Cloud chamber c. Geiger counter d. electroscope e. All of the above are able to measure amounts of radiation c. Geiger counter
In alpha decay, the number and types of particles emitted from the nucleus resemble a nucleus of what isotope? He-4
What is a beta particle? An electron that is emitted from the nucleus that originates as a neutron breaks apart into a proton and an electron. (The proton remains in the nucleus)
What type of subatomic particles are released during gamma decay? None.....only energy is released
What is the name of the nuclear power plant that is located in Burlington, KS, only 75 miles from us? Wolf Creek Power Plant
Which scientist had a simple sphere for his atomic model? Dalton
The element nickel has five naturally occurring isotopes. Which of the following describes the relationship of these isotopes? a. same mass, same atomic number b. different mass, different atomic number c. different mass, same atomic number c. different mass, same atomic number
Which of the following describes an isotope's half-life? a. a constant time period b. a varied time period c. an increasing time period d. a decreasing time period a. a constant time interval
How many half-lives have elapsed when the amount of a radioactive isotope in a sample is reduced to 3.125% of the original amount in the sample? 5 half-lives
Created by: lburris