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Fundamentals of RT

Fundamentals of RT - Units 6,7,8 SPC

What is Oxidation? Electron loss
Where does Oxidation occur? Anode
What is reduction? Electron gain
Where does reduction occur? Cathode
Where are Polargraphic analyzers used? Blood gas machines, TcO2(transcutaneous)monitors(Clark electrode), vent circuits, and O2 analyzers
What are the components of a P/G analyzer? Silver anode, Platinum cathode, and KCl solution
What are the components of a GFC (Galvanic fuel cell)? Lead anode, Gold cathode, hydroxyl solution(KOH, or CsOH)
What are the clinical applications of electrochemical analyzers? Use Polargraphic for quick (<30 secs) response time, and GFC for slower (up to 60 secs)
What are theraputic applications of Helium? Lower density gas will decrese turbulence and WOB. Stridor(post extubation), Croup, Foreign body aspiration, and Upper airway masses
What are the diffusion qualites of Heliox? Diffuse faster
What are special conciderations of Heliox? 1. Deliver w/"closed" system -NRB mask, ET tube, NO HOODS 2. Aerosols get better depostion
Flow meter factors for He/Ox? 80/20 mix = Flow x 1.8, 70/30 mix = Flow x 1.6
What are the 2 pricipals of Pulse Oximetry? Spectrophotometry - light absortion = Spectrum, Photoplethysmograpghy - light transmission = Pulse Rate
Red/Infrared ratios? Low ratio = High Sat (1/2 = SpO2 93%), High ratio = Low Sat (2/1 = SpO2 55%)
What are the technical limitations of Pulse Ox? False highs. HbCO (Firemen)carboxy hemoglobin, MHb reads R/IR 1.0 85%SpO2 Both don't allow Hb to release O2, Nail Polish, Flourescent Lights(babies)
What are the Hyperinflation Pressures? IS, IPPB, and PEP
What is IS? Incentive Spirometry, (-) pleural and aveolar pressure
What is IPPB? Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing, (+) Inspiration(I) alveolar and pleural pressure
What is PEP? Positive Expiratory Pressure, (+) E alveolar and pleural pressure
What are the Cardiovascular effects of hyperinflation? 1. Decrease venous return, 2. Dercease C.O., 3. Increase PVR, 4. Increase ICP(IntaCranial Pressure)
What is the Clinical application of Hyperinflation? Primary is Tx of atelectasis
What are the target populations for hyperinflation? Neuromuscular disease pts, Post-Op/Surgery
Define IS? Sustained Max Inspiraton via device for >3 secs, 5-10 breaths Q 1-2 hrs
Indications for IS? Atelectasis, Vital Capacity(VC) > 10-15 ml/kg
Contraindication of IS? Uncoroperative pts, VC < 10-15 ml/kg
Hazards of IS? Dizzy, Tired, Hypoxemia if on Mask already
Monitor for IS? Improved breathing sounds, Chest X-ray, Breath hold, V/Flow setting
Indications for IPPB? Atelectasis, Delivery of aerosol meds, VC < 10-15 ml/kg, good breath sound
Contraindicatons of IPPB? Untreated tension pneumothorax
Monitoring of IPPB? Tidal Volume > 1/3 predicted IC(Inspiratory Capacity)
Calculate Vt for IPPB? 1/3 predicted IC x 50ml/KgPatient weighs 80 Kg, Vt = 1/3 (80x50), 4000/3 = 1333ml
Indications for PEP? Atelectasis, SECRETIONS, VC > 10-15 ml/Kg
What are HFCC devices? High Frequency Closed Circuit. Oscillatory from 5-25Hz
One Hz = how many cycles per minute? 60
What are the advantages of HFO (High Freq Oscillatory)? Portable and cheap
What are the HFO devices? Intrapulmonary Percussive Vents(IPV), used for Txs with aerosol, 6-14Hz
What is an MIE(Mechanical Insuffulaton Exsufflation) device? Artificial Cough Machines, Peak Cough < 270 L/M,
What pts use MIE devices? With Neuromuscular problems
Monitor for MIE? Sputum (V and quantities), Improved breath sounds, and chest x-rays
What are ACBT(Airway Clearance Breathing Techniques)? HUFF and AD(Autogenic Drainage)
HUFF Cough? Blow tissue/cotton ball. Active cycle of breathing
AD(Autogenic Drainage)? series of steps include, "unstick"=low lung V, "collect"=Vt, and "evacuate"=high lung V
Created by: mac6672