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PHAR 412

Metabolism of Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins

If Q >> Keq, delta G will be negative, positive, or equal to 0? If Q is greater than Keq, Keq will be less than 1 and delta G will be positive (endergonic).
"Oxidative phosphorylation" refers to: The synthesis of ATP using an electrochemical gradient.
Which provides more ATP from cytosolic NADH? The malate-aspartate shuttle or the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttle? Malate-aspartate shuttle
Which transfers electrons from cytosolic NADH to make FADH2? The malate-aspartate shuttle or the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttle? Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttle
How many ATP are FADH2 from the glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase shuttle worth? 1.5 ATP
Synthesis of glutamate and glutamine from a-ketoglutarate is what kind of reaction? Anabolic
Which intermediate of the TCA cycle undergoes an anabolic reaction producing porphyrins? Succinyl-CoA
Which intermediate of the TCA cycle undergoes an anaplerotic reaction degrading phenylalanine and tyrosine? Fumarate
Protein degradation of glutamate and glutamine from a-ketoglutarate is what kind of reaction? Anaplerotic
What anabolic reactions does Citrate have? Synthesis of fatty acyl coenzyme A and steroid hormones/cholesterol.
The pyruvate ---> oxaloacetate is what kind of reaction? Anaplerotic
Which amino acids can be synthesized or degraded in anabolic or anapldrotic reactions? Aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine
Protein degradation of aspartate and asparagine happens from what TCA intermediate? Oxaloacetate
The oxaloacetate ---> PEP is what kind of reaction? Anabolic
Protein degradation of valine, isoleucine, and leucine from succinyl-CoA is what kind of reaction? Anaplerotic
What is the pathway to glucose from 2 lactate molecules and what is the net total of NADH? lactate ---> pyruvate ---> OAA ---> PEP ---> glucose; 0 NADH
Where is glycogen's, galactose's, and ribose-5P's branch point in glycolysis? Glucose-6P
Of glucose, fructose, or galactose, which results in the highest net ATP production in glycolysis? All the same: 5-7 ATP
To what molecule are fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules attached to create triglycerides? Glycerol-3P
How many ATP and NADH are made from gluconeogenesis of glycerol? -2 ATP, +2 NADH
How many ATP and NADH are made from gluconeogenesis of lactate? -6 ATP, 0 NADH
How many ATP and NADH are made from gluconeogensis of alanine? -6 ATP, -2 NADH
Which TCA cycle steps are activated in muscle by Ca and inhibited by ATP? Isocitrate ---> a-ketoglutarate; a-ketoglutarate ---> succinyl-CoA
Which TCA cycle enzymes are inhibited by their products? a-ketoglutarate and isocitrate dehydrogenase are both inhibited by NADH.
Which enzyme is inhibited by glucose-6P? Hexokinase
What glycolysis regulators are unique to muscle cells? Glucose-6P
What glycolysis regulators are unique to liver cells? Glucokinase, PK phosphorylation, alanine, glucagon, fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
What enzyme does alanine inhibit in liver cells? Pyruvate kinase
What effect does high glucagon have on cAMP levels? Increases cAMP levels
What effect does increased PKA activity have on fructose-2,6-bisphosphate? Decreases F-2,6BP levels
Lactate from RBC's can be exported to the liver and reconverted by gluconeogenesis to glucose. This glucose can then be re-used by the RBCs. This is called: The Cori cycle
What are the names of the two enzymes of ethanol metabolism? Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase
What are the two products of each of these enzyme reactions? Acetylaldehyde and acetic acid
What is the product of the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction in ethanol metabolism? Acetaldehyde + NADH
What is the product of the aldehyde dehydrogenase reaction in ethanol metabolism? Acetic acid + NADH
What is the name of the cofactor and enzyme associated with arsenite poisoning? Dihydrolipoamide; PDC
What is the name of the cofactor and enzyme associated with beriberi? TPP; PDC
Which branch of the pentose phosphate pathway makes CO2? Oxidative
Name the regulated enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and the molecule that regulates it. Glucose-6P dehydrogenase is regulated by NADPH.
What are five functions performed by NADPH? (1) Fatty acid synthesis, (2) steroid synthesis, (3) sugar alcohol synthesis, (4) xenobiotic hepatic transformation, (5) reduction of oxidized glutathione.
What is an adverse effect of glucose-6P dehydrogenase deficiency? Decreased NADPH = decreased GSH = damaged or dead cells from peroxides
What is the cofactor for pantothenic acid? Coenzyme A
What additional mineral is required by the TCA cycle in comparison to the PDC? Magnesium
What vitamins and minerals are required by the ETC and OXPHOS? Riboflavin, niacin, iron, copper, magnesium
What additional vitamin or mineral is required by gluconeogenesis in comparison to glycolysis? Biotin
What is the name of the enzyme that requires Biotin? Pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate ---> OAA)
What reactions in glycolysis require magnesium? Glucose ---> glucose-6P; fructose-6P ---> fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
Compare the amount of energy derived from triacylglycerol, carbohydrate, and protein. TAG > protein > carbohydrate
Describe the roles of cholecystokinin. It is released in response to lipids and digested proteins in gut. It stimulates the release of bile from the pancreas and decreases gastric motility.
Describe the role of secretin. It is released in response to decreased pH and digested proteins in gut. It stimulates the secretion of bicarbonate from the pancreas.
What is bile composed of? Amphipathic molecules that emulsify dietary fats (bile acids, phosphatidylcholine, free cholesterol).
What are the regulators for cholesterol 7-a-hydroxylase? Cholesterol is a positive regulator and cholic acid is a negative regulator.
What enzyme does Alli inhibit? Pancreatic lipase (inhibits lipid digestion)
Describe the metabolism of chylomicrons. A chylomicron is secreted from an enterocyte, apoCII and aloe from HDL bind to it and make it mature, LPL degrades TAG in mature chylomicron, chylomicron remnants endocytoseed by liver.
Explain why glycerol is not used in triacylglycerol synthesis in adipose tissue. I believe this is because glycerol kinase is not present in adipose tissue. Glycerol ---> glycerol-3P cannot occur.
What factors can affect lipolysis? Glucagon, hormone sensitive lipase (HSL).
What factors can affect esterification? Insulin, glucose, fatty acid synthesis, lipoprotein lipase.
What is the role of CPT-I and CPT-II? Fatty acid ---> fatty acyl-CoA enters mitochondria outer membrane through CPT-I complex and becomes acyl carnitine. Acyl carnitine goes through a carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase into matrix and is reformed to a fatty acyl-CoA by CPT-II.
What is the enzyme needed for the beginning reaction of B-oxidation for a fatty acid? Fatty Acyl-CoA synthetase
Write a balanced equation for the B-oxidation of stearoyl-CoA. Steroyl-Coa + 8 CoA + 8 FAD + 8 NAD+ + 8 H20 --- "8 cycles" ---> 9 Acetyl-CoA + 8 FADH2 + 8 NADH + 8 H+
What are the four steps of B-oxidation? (1) Dehydrogenation, (2) hydration, (3) dehydrogenation, (4) thiolase splits off acetyl-CoA.
Can the oxidation of an odd chain fatty acid contribute to gluconeogenesis? Yes, a remaining propionyl-Coa can undergo reactions to become succinyl-CoA.
What is an important regulatory point in mitochondrial B-oxidation of fatty acids? An increase of fatty acid synthesis will inhibit CPT-II (acyl-CoA reformation). This is important in order avoid a futile cycle.
Arachidonic acid is required for synthesis of: Eicosanoids
Lacking lipids from diet can result in a decrease of: Essential lipids
Is triacylglycerol found in micelles? No
What cofactor is used in the formation of B-hydroxybutyrate? NADH
How does glucagon cause ketogenesis? It stimulates B-oxidation of fatty acids, which increases acetyl-CoA and enters TCA cycle. Excess is used for ketogenesis.
Describe how B-hydroxybutyrate formed in the liver can be used for energy production in extra hepatic tissues. B-hydroxybutyrate leaves the liver and goes to muscle where it is converted to acetyl-CoA which can enter TCA cycle.
What complex does malonyl-CoA inhibit? CPT-I
Write a balanced equation for the synthesis of palmitic acid. Acetyl-CoA + 7 malonyl-CoA + 14 NADP(H) + 14 H+ ---> palmitic acid + 7 CO2 + 8 CoA + 14 NADP+ + 6 H20
What are the four steps of fatty acid synthesis? (1) Condensation, (2) reduction, (3) dehydration, (4) reduction.
Describe the role of phsphatidic acid in triacylglycerol synthesis. Phosphatidic acid is the precursor for glycerophospholipids.
What are the four stages in the pathway from acetyl-CoA to cholesterol? (1) Condensation, (2) conversion, (3) polymerization, (4) cyclization.
Created by: sdeck86



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