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Opioids & Analgesics

Tox Test 4

What is an opiate? General description of drugs derived from opium
What is an opioid? synthetic substance that has morphine-like actions
What is a narcotic? originally applied to any drug that induced sleep, now refers to any drug that can cause dependence
What is an analgesic? drug used to relieve pain without loss of conciousness
Where are the opioid receptors in the CNS? brainstem, medial thalmus, spinal cord, hypothalamus, limbic system, periphery, immune cells
What affects are felt when the mu receptor is activated? supraspinal.spinal analgesia, respiratory depression, euphoria/sedation, physical dependence/tolerance, decreased GI motility, pupil constriction, hypothermia, bradycardia
What effects are felt when the kappa receptor is activated? spinal analgesia, sedation/dysphoria, pupil constriction, diuresis, mild respiratory depression, low addiction liability
What effects are felt when the delta receptor is activated? spinal analgesia, dysphoria, delusions, hallucinations, respiratory/vasomotor stimulation
What effects are felt when the sigma receptor is activated? tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, tachypnea, hallucinations
How are opioids administered? IM, SC, PO
Which opioids are least affected by first pass metabolism? codeine and oxycodone
How can lipid soluble opioids be administered? transdermally (fentanyl patch) or by buccal mucosa
How are opioids abused? snorting, inhaling vapros, crushing/injecting/chewing slow release tablets, using multiple transdermal patches at once
Where do opioids bind? plasme proteins; accumulates in fatty tissue with continuous use
How are true opiates metabolized? metabolism to glucoronides, more polar and readily excreted by kidney
What are full agonists? bind strongly to specific receptors
What are the strong full agonists? high affinity for mu, low affinity for sigma Ex: morphine, fentanyl, heroin, meperidine, methadone
What are some moderate full agonists? propoxyphene, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone
What are mixed agonist-antagonists? stimulate one receptor but block another
What are some common uses for opioids? chronic pain, trauma, burns, cough supression, diarrhea, detox from opioid use
How do opioids work? spinal sites: inhibit neurons that transmit pain brainstem: activate neurons that transmit inhibitory pulses to the spinal cord
What symptoms manifest in opioid impairment? sedation, loss of motivation, impaired task performance, euphoria, loss of muscle tension
What DRE category includes opioids? Narcotic Analgesic
What are some non-opioid analgesics? aspirin, NSAIDs, acetaminophen
What are some uses for aspirin? anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, mild anticoagulant
What are NSAIDs? Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Act as analgesics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatories
What are some effects of acetaminophen? analgesic, antipyretic, hepatotoxic
Created by: bdcox15