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# QDM Exam #2

### Ch. 6

Statistical Quality Control (SQC) The general category of statistical tools ued to evaluate organizational quality.
Descriptive Statistics Statistics used to described quality characteristics and relationships.
Statistical Process Control (SPC) A statistical tool that involves inspecting a random sample of the output from a process and deciding whether the process is producing products with characteristics that fall within a predetermined range.
Acceptance Sampling The process of randomly inspecting a sample of goods and deciding whether to accept the entire lot based on the results.
Common (Random) Causes of Variation Random causes that cannot be identified.
Assignable Causes of Variation Causes that can be identified and eliminated.
Mean (Average) A statistic that measures the central tendency of a set of data.
Range The difference between the largest and smallest observations in a set of data.
Standard Deviation A statistic that measures the amount of data dispersion around the mean.
Control Chart A graph that shows whether a sample of data falls within the common or normal range of variation.
Out of Control The situation in which a plot of data falls outside preset control limits.
Variable A product characteristic that can be measured and has a continuum of values (e.g. height, weight, or volume)
Attribute A product characteristic that has a discrete value and can be counted.
P-Chart A control chart that monitors the proportion of defects in a sample.
Process Capability The ability of a production process to meet or exceed preset specifications.
Product Specifications Preset ranges of acceptable quality characteristics.
Process Capability Index An index used to measure process capability.
Six Sigma Quality A high level of quality associated with approximately 3.4 defective parts per million.
Sampling Plan A plan for acceptance sampling that precisely specifies the parameters of the sampling process and the acceptance/rejection criteria.
Operating Characteristic Curve (OC Curve) A graph that shows the probability or chance of accepting a lot given various proportions of defects in the lot.
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) The small percentage of defects that consumers are willing to accept.
Lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD) The upper limit of the percentage of defective items consumers are willing to tolerate.
Consumer's Risk The chance of accepting a lot that contains a greater number of defects than the LTPD limit.
Producer's Risk The chance that a lot containing an acceptable quality level will be rejected.
Average Outgoing Quality The expected proportion of defective items that will be passed to the customer under the sampling plan.

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