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QDM Exam #2

Ch. 5

Total Quality Management (TQM) An integrated effort designed to improve quality performance at every level of the organization.
Customer-defined Quality The meaning of quality as designed by the customer.
Conformance to Specifications How well a product or service meets the targets and tolerances determined by its designers.
Fitness for Use A definition of quality that evaluates how well the product performs for its intended use.
Value for Price Paid Quality defined in terms of product or service usefulness for the price paid.
Support services Quality defined in terms of the support provided after the product or service is purchased.
Psychological Criteria A way of defining quality that focuses on judgmental evaluations of what constitutes product or service excellence.
Prevention Costs Costs incurred in the process of preventing poor quality from occurring.
Appraisal Costs Costs incurred in the process of uncovering defects.
Internal Failure Costs Costs associated with discovering poor product quality before the product reaches the customer.
External Failure Costs Costs associated with quality problems that occur at the customer site.
Robust Design A design that results in a product that can perform over a wide range of conditions.
Taguchi Loss Function Costs of quality increase as a quadratic function as conformance values move away from the target.
Continuous Improvement (Kaizen) A philosophy of never-ending improvement.
Kaizen A Japanese term that describes the notion of a company continually striving to be better through learning and problem solving.
Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) Cycle A diagram that describes the activities that need to be performed to incorporate continuous improvement into the operation.
Benchmarking Studying the business practices of other companies for purposes of comparison.
Quality Circle A team of volunteer production employees and their supervisors who meet regularly to solve quality problems.
Cause-and-Effect Diagram A chart that identifies potential causes of particular quality problems.
Flowchart A schematic of the sequence of steps involved in an operation or process.
Checklist A list of common defects an the number of observed occurrences of these defects.
Control Charts Charts used to evaluate whether a process is operating within set expectations.
Scatter Diagrams Graphs that show how two variables are related to each other.
Pareto Analysis A technique used to identify quality problems based on their degree of importance.
Histogram A chart that shows the frequency distribution of observed values of a variable.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) A tool used to translate the preferences of the customer into specific technical requirements.
Reliability The probability that a product, service, or part will perform as intended.
Quality at the source The belief that it is best to uncover the source of quality problems and eliminate it.
Deming Prize A Japanese award given to companies to recognize efforts in quality improvement.
ISO 9000 A set of international quality standards and a certification demonstrating that companies have met all the standards specified.
ISO 14000 A set of international standards and a certification focusing on a company's environmental responsibility.
Management Systems Standards that measure systems development and integration of environmental responsibility into the overall business.
Operations Standards that include the measurement of consumption of natural resources and energy.
Environmental Systems Standards that measure emissions, effluents, and other waste systems.
Created by: bradbrown1122
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