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final exam rad

all quizzes from rad

After viewing an image made of a maxillary pre-molar periapical, you observe that the distal half of the canine is not visible. To correct the error on the retake, you would: reposition the sensor more anteriorly
What does a herringbone pattern on an exposed then processed film indicate? the film packet was placed backwards in the oral cavity
What indicates that the radiograph was overexposed? Dark image
Overexposing would result in a processed film being too light False
Accidental white light exposure would result in a radiograph that is blank (clear) True
Static electricity on conventional radiographs appear as ? thin black lines
One would correct foreshortening by: decreasing the vertical angulation
You process a film manually. The developing solution was very hot; and the fixing solution was very cold. The result of this processed film will be a: reticulated image
You acquire a mandibular central incisor periapical image and there is a very large incisal margin. This problem was caused by: the patient did not close fully onto the receptor holder
Using a F-E speed film will contribute to film fogging False
You forget to remove the patient's mandibular partial denture and then make bitewing images. This will result in a: superimposed image
Possible causes for light films include: underexposure, underdevelopment, low temperature processing
When overlapped contacts appear on the image, the cause is: incorrect horizontal angulation
A manually processed film which has not been sufficiently washed will eventually appear: brown
Insufficient vertical angulation results in: elongation
Varying the time and temperature during manual film processing has no effect on the processed image False
What is the correct manual processing sequence? develop, rinse, fix, wash, dry
The amount of time that unwrapped intraoral films can be exposed to safelighting without affecting image quality is approximately: 2-3 minutes
The type of safelight which is safe for all films (including extraoral) is the: GBX 2
Using an f-speed film rather than an e-speed film to produce a radiograph results in: less patient exposure
What is the hardening agent? Potassium Alum
What is the restrainer? Potassium Bromide
What is the preservative? Sodium Sulfite
What is the clearing agent? Hypothiosulfate
What is one of the reducing agents used in the developer? hydropuinone
What softens/swells emulsion in developer? sodium bicarbonate
What is the ideal temperature when films are processed manually? 68 degrees
selective reduction is defined as that process whereby the fixer acts only upon the exposed silver halide crystals of the film emulsion to reduce them to black metallic silver false
automatic processors produce processed films faster than manual development because they utilize highly saturated solutions which operate at higher temperatures true
rapid processing solutions provide rapid information but at the expense of the quality of the film. true
you perform the coin test for safelighting and find that an outline of the coin is visible on the processed film. The safelighting is therefore is not safe. true
What are the two essential actions of the fixer solution? -fixes and hardens the image, - takes away the unexposed silver bromide crystals
What is the purpose of the black paper in the film packet? helps keep film from being exposed
What is the purpose of the lead foil in the film packet? stops any back scatter radiation to go any further
The image on the exposed dental film which is not made available until processing is termed the ______ image. latent
what is the portion of the cell that is damaged when a genetic mutation results? DNA
true or false? Cumulative effects of x-radiation exposure lead to health problems true
true or false? all radiation injuries become evident immediately false
true or false? x-radiation only injures somatic cells false
true or false? the latent period is long when a single large dose of radiation is received false
what is the first clinical sign of excessive exposure to radiation? erythema
what is the most dangerous time for a fetus to be exposed to ionizing radiation? 1st trimester
Why is a child's cell more susceptible to damage from x-radiation than adult cells? more rapid cell reproduction
Identify the cells form those listed below which are more sensitive to x-radiation; nerve cells, muscle cells, red blood cells, cardiac cells red blood cells
what is the maximum permissible dose (MPD) than an occupationally exposed person can receive in a year? .05 SV/year (5.0 rem/year)
which of the following cells are most sensitive to radiation? muscle, nerve, sperm, epithelium sperm
How far away should the operator stand when making a radiograph? at least 6 feet away from the x-ray tube and patient
true or false? The amount of radiation a person receives is cumulative in the entire body true
what is the purpose of the radiation badge? to monitor the radiation exposure the radiographer receives
radiation effects that occur in the exposed person, not in the reproductive cells are termed: somatic effects
this theory suggests that x-ray energy is absorbed within the cell and causes the formation of toxins which in turn damage cells indirect theory of intercellular damage
this standard international term places exposure effects on a common scale and is used to compare the biologic effects of various radiation types on body tissues sievert
cell sensitivity to radiation exposure depends upon all of the following except: type of cell, individual response, dose rate, cell differentiation, ethnicity ethnicity
true or false? a measure of ionization produced in air is referred to as the Roentgen or Coulomb per kg true
true or false? effects from radiation exposure that occur years, decades and even generations later are referred to as long term effects true
the most radiosensitive cell of the body is the reproductive cell of sperm and ova false
the thyroid gland, bone marrow, skin and eyes are considered critical organs of concern in dentistry true
Define the Latent Period The period of time between exposure to radiation and first observable clinical affects
compute your maximum accumulated dose (MAD) (20-18) x 5 = 10 rems
what does the acronym ALARA stand for? As Low As Reasonably Achievable
What is ALARA important? dont want the patient to receive any unnecessary x-radiation if you can get what you need at a smaller dose of x-radiation
x-ray machines operating at kvp's higher than 70 need what? 2.5 mm of aluminum filtration
what is the sum of the inherent and the added filtration? total filtration
what is density? the degree of overall film blackness
what is collimation the restriction of the size of the x-ray beam
what is contrast? the differences in degrees of blackness between adjacent areas on the radiograph
what is sharpness? distinct outline and specified details of the included structures (also referred to as detail, definition, or resolution)
60 impulses = ? 1 second
what is the kilovoltage peak rule? when kilovoltage peak is increased by a factor of 15, the exposure time should be decreased by one-half
what is the inverse square law? the intensity of radiation is inversely proportional to the square of the target to film/receptor distance
to produce a larger quantity of electrons for the production of x-rays, the radiographer would increase what? mA (milliamperage)
what is the term that describes the electrical pressure or force that drives the electric current through the circuit of the x-ray machine? voltage
the process of heating the cathode wire filament until red hot and electrons are boiled off is termed? thermionic emission
what metal is used for the target in the x-ray tube? tungsten
what percent of the kinetic energy inside the x-ray tube is converted into x-rays? 1%
What controls the penetrating power of the x-ray beam? milliamperage
while pressing the exposure button the radiographer will hear an audible beep indicating that? x-rays are being produced
the step down transformer is located where? in the cathode circuit
true or false? the focal spot improves definition by concentrating electrons into a very small area true
true or false? the actual focal spot is rectangular and serves to allow for greater dissipation of the heat generated true
true or false? the metal used for the target within the x-ray tube in modern x-ray tubes satisfies all of the properties of an ideal target material false
true or false? x-rays are produced in a series of bursts or pulses rather than as a steady stream true
true or false? milliiamperage determines the speed by which the electrons travel to the target. false
true or false? the dental x-ray tube is self-rectified true
true or false? the effective focal spot serves to enhance image sharpness true
true or false? a step down transformer has more wire coils in the secondary coil than in the primary coil false
the tungsten target is angled in the copper stem at a ------ degree angle. 20
radiation is defined as? a form of energy carried by waves
true or false? many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental radiographs true
Who is Dr. Raper? he is responsible for introducing radiology into the dental school curriculum
the nucleus of an atom contains? protons and neutrons
true or false? an oral examination with dental radiographs limits the practitioner to what is seen clinically. false
true or false? many dental diseases are typically discovered only through the use of dental radiographs true
true or false? all dental diseases and conditions produce clinical signs and symtoms false
true or false? dental radiographs are not necessary component of comprehensive patient care false
true or false? the K shell is closest to the nucleus and has the highest energy level true
true or false? protons travel around the nucleus in well-defined shells false
true or false? an atom contains an infinite number of shells false
true or false? the energy level within each shell is the same false
what are the 5 rules of shadow casting? (refer to paper for answer)
true or false? x-rays were discovered by Wilhelm Roentgen true
true or false? pointed "cones" produce scatter radiation and are no longer recommended true
what is external root resorption? the destruction of root structure from an outside source (i.e. orthodontics)
what is internal root resorption? is traumatically induced, and develops from an inflammatory response within the pulp
what is physiological root resorption? NORMAL resorption of deciduous teeth as a result of the incoming successor
what is secondary dentin? a normal aging response, can also occur as a dense mechanism to caries, etc. teeth are more yellow due to this
what are pulp stones? round or oval opacities within the pulp, composed of dentin or calcified salts, very common, and usually have no significance
what is condensing osteitis? irregular radiopacities within the bone, usually a reaction of bone to a low grade inflammation
what is hypercementosis? excess calcification of the root cementum of a tooth, results in a "clubbing" of root end
what is ankylosis? a tooth that is fused to surrounding bone, preventing exfoliation
what is abrasion? a physical wearing away of root structure leading to less density in affected area
what is abfraction? a wearing away of root structure from unusual stress on neck of tooth
what is attrition? occlusal wear on teeth seen clinically observed radiographically
what is erosion? loss of tooth structure from chemical action
what is fusion? two teeth joined early in development to form a single large tooth
what is gemination? a single tooth germ splits to form a single large crown (same tooth count)
what is concrescence? two well formed teeth are joined by their cementum layers
what is dens in dente? a tooth within a tooth
what is taurodontism? teeth with large bodies and pulp chambers with very little root formation
what is macrodontia? a very large tooth for the dentition
what is microdontia a very small tooth for the dentition
what is amelogenesis imperfecta enamel fails to achieve its proper thickness
what is dentinogenesis imperfecta? a developmental disturbance of dentin formation
what is supernumerary teeth? extra teeth
what are malposed teeth? due to the lack of space or obstruction
what are the most common impacted teeth? maxillary and mandibular 3rd molars
how do you identify impaction? by orientation
what is tori? bony projections encountered on palate or lingual surface of the mandible
how does tori appear on radiographs? radiopaque projections superimposed over apical areas of maxillary teeth for palatal tori; superimposed over the roots of mandibular teeth for mandibular tori
what is enamel pearl? small globule of enamel occurring in the roots of molars, especially at the furcation of the roots
what are salivary stones? appear within glands, spherical shaped opacities with irregular borders
what is dilaceration? deformed teeth caused by injury in development, especially mechanical trauma
what are fractures? discontinuity in outline of tooth
Created by: 1371661736