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Exam 2

Definition of social influence Behavior as a function of the interaction between personal characteristics of an individual and the environment
What is the most important component of social environments? Significant others or social influence
Developmental timeline of preferred sources of competence information Adults to peers at age 11, and peers to self at age 15
Definition of socialization The process whereby individuals learn or acquire attitudes, values, norms, knowledge, and expectations regarding present and anticipated roles
What are the stages of sport socialization? Into, through, and out of sport/physical activity
What are three ways that socialization processes can occur? Direct, vicarious, and expectancy socialization
What is direct socialization? Where someone is directly speaking to you, telling you what to do
What is vicarious socialization? observation and modeling
What is expectancy socialization? More subtle, where parents structure environment to influence behavior
What are the three dimensions of friendship and peer relationships in sport? Positive, negative, and peer victimization
What are the three coaching approaches to feedback? Positive, praise only, and negative approach
What is the positive approach to coaching? Awarding appropriate behavior, sandwich approach the best!
What is the praise only approach? Not specific, perceived confidence will decrease
What is the negative approach to coaching? Fear tactics
What are the four tips to providing performance feedback? provide: knowledge of results, sincere and contingent feedback, motivational and instructional feedback and use varied types of feedback not just one
What are the drawbacks of punishment? punishment can arouse fear of failure, act as a reinforcer for the wrong skill, and create an unpleasant, aversive learning environment
When should you use physical activity as a punishment? never
What are the two categories of CBAS? Reactive behaviors, in response to player behavior and spontaneous behaviors, coach initiated
What are the five components of effective coaches? developmental model, positive approach, mutual support, involve athletes in decision making, and self-monitoring by coaches
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? A four step process when coaches expectations become a reality
What are the four steps in the self-fulfilling prophecy? Coach develops an expectation for each athlete, and then the expectation influences his or her treatment of the individual athlete. Then the way the athlete is treated communicates information about how competent they are. Finally athlete’s behavior and
What is the definition of Leadership? The behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups towards set goals
What the five dimensions of leadership? Training/instruction, democratic, autocratic, social support, and positive feedback
What are the three consequences of leadership? Satisfaction, cohesion, and performance
What is the definition of group dynamics? A field of inquiry “dedicated to advancing knowledge about the nature of groups, the laws of their development, and their interrelationships with individuals, other groups, and larger institutions”
Definition of an exercise group Two or more individuals participating under the direction or supervision of a leader who socially categorize themselves as a unit
Definition of a sport team Two or more people who possess a common identity, have common goals, share common fate, exhibit structure patterns of interaction and modes of communication, hold common perceptions about group structure, are personally and instrumentally interdependent,
What are some features of sport groups? A collective identity, a sense of shared purpose, structure patterns of interactions and methods of communication, personal and task interdependence, interpersonal attraction, a shared common fate, a perception of the unit as a group.
Definition of a team A group of individuals who must interact with each other to accomplish shared goals and objectives
What are the four stages of the developmental model for how a group becomes a team? Forming, storming, norming, and performing
What is forming? Familiarizing self with others in group (social comparison)
What is storming? Resistance to the leader/control by group
What is norming? Hostility replaced by solidarity and cooperation
What is the performing stage? Team bonds together to channel energy to team’s success
Definition of a group role? A set of behaviors required or expected of the person occupying a certain position in a group
Definition of a group norm? A level of performance pattern of behavior, or belief
What is social facilitation? The influence of the presence of others on performance (audience or co performers)
What is BIRG? Basking in Reflected Glory, the phenomenon in which spectators identify with teams in the glory as a form of self-representation
What are six types of social support? Listening, emotional, emotional-challenge, reality-confirmation, task-appreciation, task-challenge, personal-assistance
What is the Ringlemann effect? Social loafing, the phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases
Definition of Cohesion A degree of attraction in and to the group, commitment to the group and individual involvement to collective totality of group
What is task cohesion? Reflects the degree to which members of a group work together to achieve common goals.
What is social cohesion? Reflects the degree to which members of a team like each other and enjoy each other’s company
What are some factors that affect team/group cohesion? Situational factors, distinctiveness, size, personal factors, satisfaction, leadership, team factors, task, communication, and performance success
What are the four dimensions to group cohesion? Group integration – task and social, and individual attraction to the group – task and situational
Why do people exercise? weight control, appearance, socializing, psychological effects, enjoyment, and skill building
Why don’t people exercise? Time constraints, lack of energy, and lack of motivation
Reasons why people don’t adhere Exercise prescriptions ignore peoples psy. Readiness, and are restrictive and don’t increase motivation, and often too challenging, and don’t promote self responsibility and don’t empower people to stay with it
What are the stages to the Transtheoretical model of analyzing exercise behavior? Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination stages
Definition of clinical depression A sadness which pervades all domains of personal life and feels like an unalterable mental state
Definition of anxiety disorders Feelings of extreme discomfort and tension with a fear of panic attacks and interfere with daily life
Definition of addiction a compulsive need for and use of a habit forming substance, characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal
Definition of positive addiction an addiction that confers strength to the individual and promotes effective living
What are the characteristics of exercise addiction? Rigid exercise schedule, increasing dose dependence, guilt etc when schedule is violated, compensatory increases to make up for lapses, consistently intense workouts, pushing oneself even when ill or injured, exercise above all else
Could exercise addicts be unconsciously self-treating for depression? depression is one of the withdrawal symptoms
Possible causes of exercise addiction Psychological and physiological
Created by: Kayerenee
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