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RADT 316

Unit 4

QuestionAnswer
Where does the spinal cord begin? Medulla Oblongata
The spinal cord runs from level (1) to the level of (2). (1) C1 (2) L1
What is the function of the Intervertebral Disks? To provide Stability, Flexibility, and Movement to the vertebral column.
What are the 5 sections of the vertebral column? (1) Cervical (2) Thoracic (3) Lumbar (4) Sacrum (5) Coccyx
How many total bones are in the adult vertebral column? 26
How many total bones are in a child's vertebral column? 33
How many vertebrae are in the Cervical spine? 7
How many vertebrae are in the Thoracic spine? 12
How many vertebrae are in the Lumbar spine? 5
How many bones are in the (Adult) Sacrum? 1
How many bones are in the (Adult) Coccyx? 1
Which section of the vertebral column has the largest individual vertebrae as well as the strongest? Lumbar
Which sections of the spine have a Concave/Lordotic curve? (1) Cervical (2) Lumbar
Which sections of the spine have a Convex/Kyphotic curve? (1) Thoracic (2) Sacrum
Which sections of the spine are considered Primary Curves? (1) Thoracic (2) Sacrum
Which sections of the spine are considered Compensatory Curves? (1) Cervical (2) Lumbar
Of the two Compensatory Curves, which develops first and why? (1) Cervical (2) Develops when a baby begins raising their head
Of the two Compensatory Curves, which develops second and why? (1) Lumbar (2) Forms when children learn how to walk
Compensatory Curves have this type of appearance. Concave/Lordotic Appearance
Primary Curves have this type of appearance. Convex/Kyphotic Appearance
The lumbar spine possesses a ______ posterior spinal curvature. Concave/Lordotic
Lordosis Abnormal anterior concavity of the Lumbar spine. AKA "Swayback"
Kyphosis Abnormal convexity of the Thoracic spine. AKA "Humpback"
Scoliosis Abnormal or exaggerated lateral curvature of the spine.
Clay Shoveler's Fx Avulsion fx of the spinous process of C6-T1. Double Spinous Process Sign. Caused by Hyperflexion of the neck.
Compression Fx Wedge-Shaped vertebral body from lateral perspective. Irregular Spacing from AP perspective.
Hangman's Fx Fracture of the anterior C2 arch with anterior subluxation of C2 on C3. Caused by extreme hyperextension of the neck.
Jefferson Fx Bilateral Offset or Spreading of the lateral masses of C1 relative to dens (Comminuted fracture/shattering of the ring of C1). Caused by axial loading usually due to landing on the head or abruptly on ones feet.
Odontoid Fx Fracture line through the base of the Dens, possibly extending into the lateral masses or arches of C1.
Teardrop Burst Fx Comminuted vertebral body fragments avulsed from anteroinferior border and fragments from posterior vertebral body displaced into the spinal canal. Caused by compression and hyperflexion of the cervical region.
Facets: Unilateral Subluxations Bowtie deformity caused by vertebra being rotated on it's axis.
Facets: Bilateral Locks Jumped deformity where the entire vertebra is located more anteriorly than it should be.
Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) Possible narrowing in the disk spacing between vertebrae and protrusion of disk into the spinal canal on CT or MRI. Happens when the nucleus pulposus presses on the spinal cord or spinal nerves. AKA "Slipped Disk"
Osteoarthritis Degeneration of cartilage and formation of osteophytes (bony outgrowths)
Osteoporosis BMD (Bone Mineral Density) loss
Scheuermann's Disease Mild Kyphosis and/or Scoliosis. Most common involvement in Thoracic spine.
Spondylitis/ Ankylosing Spondylitis Calcification with ossification (formation of bony ridges between vertebrae), creating stiffness and lack of joint mobility.
Spondylosis Decreased intervertebral joint space, foraminal stenosis, osteaphytes
Transitional Vertebra Bony Projections extended laterally from transverse processes
The Vertebral Prominens is the bony landmark at the same level as what? C7-T1
The Jugular Notch is the bony landmark at the same level as what? T2-T3
A point 3-4" below the Jugular Notch is equivalent to what spine level? T7
The gonion is at what spine level? C3
The Sternal Angle is at approximately what spine level? T4-T5
The Thyroid Cartilage is at approximately what spine level? C4-C6
What are two ways to prevent excess scatter radiation on a lateral thoracic image? (1) Collimation (2) Shielding
What are the functions of the vertebral column? (1) Supports Trunk (2) Protects Spinal Cord (3) Supports Skull
What is another name for C1? Atlas
What is another name for C2? Axis
What is another name for C7? Vertebra Prominens
What is another name for the Odontoid Process? Dens
The Intervertebral Joints of C2-T12 have this joint classification and movement. (1) Cartilaginous (2) Amphiarthrodial
The Z joints of C2-T12 have this classification. Synovial
The Z joints of C2-T12 have this mobility type. Diarthroidal
The Z joints of C2-T12 have this movement. Plane
A dose reduction of ____% can occur by imaging a scoliosis series PA rather than AP. 90%
How could the anode heel effect be used with the thoracic spine? Have the Anode Side of tube toward upper chest.
The joint between the Skull and C1 have this joint classification, mobility, and movement type. (1) Synovial (2) Diarthrodial (3) Ellipsoid
The joint between C1 and C2 have these joint classification, mobility, and movement types. (1) Synovial (2) Diarthrodial (3) Lat: Plane/Gliding Medial: Trochoid/Pivot
The ________ foramina is created by the superior and inferior vertebral notches. Intervertebral
The joints found between the superior and inferior articular processes. Zygapophyseal Joints (Z Joints)
Inner aspect of the Intervertebral Disk. Nucleus Pulposus
The ______ pass through the cervical transverse foramina. Vertebral Artery/Vein
The anterior obliques (RAO/LAO) of the cervical spine demonstrate which Intervertebral Foramina? Side Closest
The posterior obliques of (RPO/LPO) the cervical spine demonstrate which Intervertebral Foramina? Side Farthest
The anterior obliques (RAO/LAO) of the thoracic spine demonstrate which joints? Side Closest
The posterior obliques (RPO/LPO) of the thoracic spine demonstrate which joints? Side Farthest
What is the degree and direction of angulation for the AP axial cervical spine? 15 to 20 Cephalic
What is the degree and direction of angulation for an anterior oblique cervical spine? 15 Caudal
What is the degree and direction of angulation for a posterior oblique cervical spine? 15 Cephalic
In a RAO position of the cervical spine, what specific structures would be visualized? Right Intervertebral Foramina
In a RAO position of the thoracic spine, what specific structures would be visualized? Right Zygapophyseal Joints
The Intervertebral Foramina for the cervical spine lie at a ____ degree angle to the midsagittal plane. 45 Degree
The Zygapophyseal Joints of the cervical spine (C3-7) lie at a ______ degree angle to the midsagittal plane. 90 Degree
What is the ligament that holds the dens against the anterior arch of C1? Transverse Atlantal Ligament
Position of the thoracic spine that best demonstrates the Intervertebral Foramina. Lateral
Exposure should be made on full ______ for lateral cervical radiography. Expiration
What film size is used for Cervical Radiography? 8x10 or 10x12
What SID is generally used for AP Axial Cervical? 40"
What is the film orientation for most cervical views? Lengthwise
kV range for Cervical Radiography 70-80 kV
kV range for Thoracic Radiography 80-90 kV
What is the usual SID for lateral and oblique cervical radiography? 72"
What is the usual SID for thoracic radiography? 40"
What is the film size for AP/Lat Thoracic? 14x17
What is the film orientation for AP/Lat Thoracic? Lengthwise
Centering point for AP Axial C4
Centering point for AP Open Mouth Center of Open Mouth
Centering point for AP Fuchs Inferior Tip of Mandible
Centering point for PA Judd 1" Inferoposterior to Mastoid Tips and angles of Mandible
Centering point for Lateral C4
Centering point for Swimmer's T1 (1" above jugular notch or at level of C7 process)
Centering point for Trauma Lateral C4
Centering point for Oblique Cervical C4
Centering point for Flexion/Extension Lateral C4
Centering point for AP Thoracic T7
Centering point for Lateral Thoracic T7
Centering point for RAO/LAO Thoracic T7
The Fuchs method is a ____ projection. AP
The Judd method is a _____ projection. PA
Doing obliques in the AP vs PA increases your patient's thyroid dose by _____ times. 10-15 Times
Which two projections will show the Odontoid in the center of the Foramen Magnum? (1) Judd (2) Fuchs
Unique characteristic of Cervical Spine vertebrae structure. (1) Bifid Spinous Process (2) Three Foramina
Unique characteristic of Thoracic Spine vertebrae structure. Facets for rib articulations
What is the large joint space between C1 and C2? Zygapophyseal
What are partial facets found on thoracic vertebrae? Demifacets
Thoracic vertebrae that do not possess a facet for the Costotransverse Joint. T11 and T12
What position of the cervical spine that would best demonstrate the Zygapophyseal Joint of C1-C2? AP Open Mouth
Position of the thoracic spine that best demonstrates the Zygapophyseal Joints. Oblique
The Zygapophyseal Joints lie at a _____ degree angle to the midsaggital plane in the thoracic spine. 70 Degrees
Common site for HNP L4-L5
What are the structures in vertebrae through which spinal nerves and vessels exit the spinal column? Intervertebral Foramina
What is the thick weight bearing anterior part of the vertebra? Body
Consists of a ring or arch of bone that extends posteriorly from the vertebral body. Vertebral Arch
The posterior and anterior vertebral arches form a circle called ______ which protects the spinal cord. Vertebral Foramen
Succession of vertebral foramina forms a tube-like opening called_____. Vertebral Canal
Bony process that extends posteriorly from either side of the vertebral body and forms most of the sides of the vertebral arch. Pedicles
Posterior part of vertebral arch is formed by two somewhat flat layers of bone called_____ which extend posteriorly from the pedicle and unite at the midline. Laminae
Process that extends laterally from the junction of the pedicle and laminae. Transverse
Process that extends posteriorly from the junction of two laminae. Spinous
The outer fibrous portion of a intervertebral disk. Annulus Fibrosus
The joint between C1 and skull. Atlantooccipital Articulations
C1 lacks this feature of all vertebrae. Body
If the left side Z joint appears more closed off than the right side Z joint on an AP open mouth view, what could be the problem? Skull Tilted to Left
This thoracic vertebra has a full facet superiorly and a demifacet inferiorly. T1
Thoracic vertebrae that have demifacets both superiorly and inferiorly. T2-T8
Thoracic vertebra with only a demifacet superiorly. T9
Thoracic vertebrae with full facets only. T10-T12
The degree of rotation FROM A LATERAL position for an RAO thoracic? 15-20
The base of the skull (tip of mastoid process) should be in line with this for an AP open mouth view. Occlusal Plane
Which view would show the odontoid process inside the foramen magnum? Fuchs
How much is the CR angled for an AP Thoracic? 0
How much is the CR angled for an RAO Thoracic? 0
How much is the CR angled for a Cervical lateral? 0
What is the SID for a cervical lateral? 72"
Why do we use the SID we do for the lateral cervical? To compensate for large OID.
How much is the CR angle for the lateral thoracic? 0
How much is the CR angle for cervical swimmer's when shoulder separation is not possible? 3-5 Degrees
The portion of the cervical lamina that is a short column of bone between the superior and inferior processes. Articular Pillar
The joints between C1 and C2 have these movement types. Plane and Trochoid
The name of the two joints between C1 and C2. R/L Lateral Atlantoaxial (sometimes called Zygaphophyseal Joints) and Medial Atlantoaxial
What is the major positioning line used in the Fuchs method (other than MSP)? MML
Central ray is directed ______ degrees to the MML for a Fuchs method. 0 (parallel)
What technique is used on a lateral thoracic to blur structures that overlie the thoracic vertebrae? Breathing
First view attempted of a cervical spine series to "clear" a patient in a collar. CTL
Example of a transitional vertebra. C7 or L1 with False Rib
Thoracic vertebrae that possess a facet on the transverse process for rib articulation. T1-T10
Created by: rmhale