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Chapter 3

States of Matter - Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Plasma

States of Matter The physical forms in which a substance can exist.
Solid The state of matter that has a definite shape and volume.
Crystalline Solid Solid with a very orderly, three-dimensional arrangement of particles in a repeating patten of rows (ie Iron, Diamond, Ice).
Amorphous Solid Solids made of particles that do not have a special arrangement in patterns (ie Glass, Rubber, and Wax).
Liquid The state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape.
Surface Tension The force that acts on the surface of a liquid and that tends to minimize the area of the surface (the reason a paperclip sits atop water).
Viscosity The resistance of a gas or liquid to flow.
Gas A form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape.
Temperature A measure of how hot (or cold)something is; specifically, a measure of the movement of particles.
Volume The amount of space that an object takes up.
Pressure The amount of force exerted on a given area of surface.
Boyle's Law The law that states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of a gas when temperature is constant (ie as volume decreases, pressure increases and as volume increases, pressure decreases).
Charle's Law The law that states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas when pressure is constant (ie: as temperature decreases, volume decreases and as temperature increases, volume increases).
Change of state The change of a substance from one physical state to another (ie: ice to water, water to vapor).
Melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid (ice turning into water).
Freezing The change of state from a liquid to a solid (ie: water turning into ice).
Evaporation The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas (ie: water turning into steam).
Boiling The conversion of liquid to a vapor when the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure.
Condensation The change of state from a gas to a liquid (ie steam turning to water on your bathroom mirror after a shower).
Sublimation When a solid changes directly into a gas (no melting, goes straight from solid to gas without turning into a liquid in between).
Plasma “Superheated Gas” - A mixture of charged particles. When gas is heated to high temperatures the particles of the atoms are free to collide.
Created by: Kenmore Science