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10+11 vocab

10+11 Vocab

Objective of Drug Therapy To deliver the right drug, to the right site of action, in the right concentration at the right time, to produce the desired effect
Receptors when a drug produces an effect, it is interacting on a moleculer level with cell material that is called a receptor. Receptor activation is responsible for most of the pharmacological responses in the body
Site of Action only those drugs able to interact with the receptors in a particular site of action can produce effects in that site. This is why specific cells only respond to certain drugs
Agonists Drugs that activate receptors and produce a response that may either accelerate or slow normal cell processes
Antagonists Drugs that bind to receptors but do not activate them. They prevent other drugs or substances from interacting with receptors
Dose Response Curve Specific doses of a drug is given to various subjects and the effect or response is measured in terms of dose and effect
Blood concentration The primary way to monitor a drugs concentration in the body and its related effect is to determine its blood concentrations
Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) When there is enough drug at the site of action to produce a response
Minimum Toxic Concentration (MTC) An upper blood concentration limit beyond which there are undesired toxic effects
Therapeutic Window The range between the minimum effective concentration and the minimum toxic concentration. When concentrations are in this range, most patients receive the maximum benefit from their drug therapy with a minimum of risk
ADME Blood concentrations are the result of four simultaneously acting processes: Absorption, distribution, Metabolism and excretion
Elimination Metabolism and Excretion combined
Passive diffusion Besides the 4 ADME processes, a critical factor of drug concentration and effect is how drugs move through biological membranes. Most drugs penetrate biological membranes this way
Hydrophobic drugs Lipid (fat) soluble drugs that penetrate the lipoidal cell membrane better than hydrophilic drugs
Hydrophillic Drugs Drugs that are attracted to water
Aqueous pores Openings in cell membranes that allow entry of water and water soluble drugs
Absorption The transfer of drug into the blood from an administered drug product
Gastric emptying Most drugs are given orally and absorbed into the blood from the small intestine. One of the primary factors affecting oral drug absorption
Distribution The movement of a drug within the body once the drug has reached he blood
Selective action Drug action that is selective to certain tissues or organs due both to the specific nature of receptor action as well as to various factors that can affect distribution
Protein Binding Many drugs bind to proteins in blood plasma to form a complex that is too large to penetrate cell openings. So the drug remains inactive
Metabolism The bodys process of transforming drugs. the primary site of drug metabolism in the body is the liver. Enzymes produced by the liver interact with drugs and transform them into metabolited
Enzyme A complex protein that causes chemical reactions in other substances
Metabolite The transformed drug
Enzyme induction the increase in enzyme activity that results in greater metabolism of drugs
Enzyme inhibition The decrease in enzyme activity that results in reduced metabolism of drugs
First pass metabolism When a drug is substantially degraded or destroyed by the livers enzymes before it reaches the circulatory system, an important factor with orally administered drugs
Enterohepatic cycling The transfer of drugs and their metabolites from the liver to the bile in the gallbladder and then into the intestine
Excretion The process of excreting drugs and metabolites, primarily performed by the kidney through urine
glomerular filtration the blood filtering process of the kidneys. as plasma water moves through the nephron, waste substances (inclkuding drugs and metabolites) are secreted into the fluid, with urine as the end result
Bioavailability The amount of drug that is delivered to the site of action and at the rate at which it is available
Bioequivalents pharmaceutical equivalenrs or alternatives which have essentially the same rate and extent of absorption when administered at the same dose of the active ingredient under similar conditions
Pharmaceutical equivalents drug products that contain identical amounts of the same ingredients in the same dosage form but may contain different inactive ingredients
Pharmaceutical Alternatives drug products that contain the identical active ingredients but not necessarily in the same amount or dosage form
Therapeutic equivalent produces the same effect in patients
therapeutic alternative drugs that have different active ingredients but produce similar therapeutic effects
Human variability differences in age, weight, genetics, and gender are among the significant factors that influence the differences in medication responses amond people
Age drug distribution, metabolism and excretion are quite different in the neonate and infant than in adults because their organ systems are not fully developed. Children metabolize certain drugs more rapidly than adults.
Pregnancy a number of physiological changes that occur in women in the latter stages of pregnancy tend to reduce the rate of absorption
genetics genetic differences can cause differences in the types and amounts of proteins produced in the body which can result in differences in drug action
Pharmacogenetics A new field of study that defines the hereditary basis of Individual differences
weight weight adjustments may need to be needed for individuals whose weight is more than 50% higher than the average adult weight. weight adjustments are also made for children or unusually small emaciated or obese adult patients
disease states the disposition and effect of some drugs can be altered in a person, but not in another by the presence of diseases other than for which the drug is used. Hepatic, cardiovascular, renal and endocrine disease all increase the variability in drug response
Allergic reactions Almost any drug, in almost any dose can produce allergic or hypersensitive reaction in a patient. Anaphylactic shock is a potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction
Common adverse reactions Anorexia, Nausea, vomiting, constipation and diarrhea are among the most common adverse reactions to drugs
Teratogenicity The ability of a substance to cause abnormal fetal development when given to pregnant women
drug-drug interactions these can result in either increases or decreases in therapeutic effects or adverse effects
displacement displacement of one drug from protein binding sites by a second drug increases the effects of the displaced drug. Decreased intestinal absorption can occur when orally taken drugs combine to produce nonabsorbably compounds
Enzyme induction caused when drugs activate metabolizing enzymes in the liver, increasing the metabolism of other drugs affected by the same enzymes
Enzyme inhibition when a drug blocks the activity of metabolic enzymes in the liver
urinary reabsorption some drugs raise urinary PH, lessening renal reabsorption, eg. sodium bicarbonate raises PH and will cause increased elimination of phenobarbitol
addictive effects occur when two drugs with similar pharmacological actions are taken eg. alcohol and a sedative caused increased sedative effect
Synergism occurs when two drugs with different sites or mechanisms of action produce greater effects than the sum of individual effects eg. acetaminophen and aspirin together produce increased anticoagulation
drug-diet interactions the physical presence of food in the GI tract can alter absorption by interacting chemically;improving water solubility of some drugs by increasing bile secretion; affecting performance of dosage form;altering gastric emptying;altering intestinal movement
Created by: megancarter



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