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Neuroanatomy

A&P Vestibular Sys

QuestionAnswer
Bony Labyrinth: _______ = high Na/ low K Perilymph
Membranous Labyrinth: ________ = high K/ low Na Endolymph
_____ cells = receptors of labyrinth Hair
movement of hair bundle and gel --> electrical response --> excitatory --> increase or decrease in firing of ____ CN VIII
_____ division conveys information about sound Cochlea
the 3 general layers of the Cochlea division are the _____, _____, and _____ outer, middle, inner
sound vibrates ________ membrane --> middle ear ossicles --> perilymph --> resulting in changes in the basilar membrane .. organ of Corti tympanic
types of hearing loss: ______ hearing loss = sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear are blocked conductive
conductive hearing loss can be caused by ______ ____ in the auditory canal, _____ buildup in the middle ear, ____ ______, or abnormal _____ growth. ear wax, fluid, ear infections, bone
types of hearing loss: ______ hearing loss = damage to the vestibulocochlear nerve. sensorineural
sensorineural hearing loss can be caused by _____ injury, ____ defects, ____ or _____ head, birth, HTN or stroke
_______ is hearing loss most commonly due to age related changes. presbycusis
_______ is sensitivity to sound hypercusis
_______ is abnormal sounds (e.g. ringing, buzzing, etc.) tinnitus
the peripheral vestibular system has 5 sensory organs: 3 ______ and 2 _____ semicircular canals, otoliths
Vestibular system: our _____ ear provide info about where we are in space - upright or leaning inner
we rely on _____ cues most during movement vestibular
our inner ear controls info about ___ & ___ cooridnation as well as ______ strategies. eye & head, balance
semicircular canals are responsible for ______ motion. angular
semicircular canals are oriented ___ degrees from eachother and pick up info in all planes. ___ degrees from the sagittal plane. 90, 45
______ - " bubble-like " projection containing crista ampulla
Otoliths are responsible for ______ motion. linear
the _____ and the _____ are the two otoliths. uticle, saccule
the 3 semicircular canals are the ____, _____, and _______ anterior, posterior, and horizontal
_____ - houses the hair cells and rest on a tuft of nn fibers, blood vessels and supporting cells Crista
_____ - gelatinous membrane that overlies each crista, resulting in a 'coupling' between head motion and hair cell movement. Cupula
Cupula has the same specific gravity as ________, therefore NOT pulled by gravity. endolymph
The utricle senses ______ linear while the saccule contributes to the ______ movements. horizontal, vertical
Sensory hair cells or '______' are also covered by a gelatinous membrane which contain otoconia maculae
_______ - calcium carbonate crystals or 'ear rocks' which causes the maculae to be sensitive to gravity. Otoconia
sensory hair cells convert head motion (both angular and linear) into _____ firing neural
Neurons firing send messages to the brain resulting in __________ of the head and body in space as well as _________ eye and head movement orientation, cooridinated
when information getting to the brain is incorrect or the processing is incorrect the result from eithe is sensory conflict that usually leads to _____, _____, and often times ______ imbalance, dizziness, nausea
there are two main areas for vestibular input: 1) _____ _____ complex - " primary processor "2) ______ " the adaptive processor " vestibular nuclear complex, cerebellum
____-____ ____ VOR: the purpose is to maintain stable vision during head movement, thus controlling eye-head coordination vestibular-ocular reflex
_____-____ ___ VSR: the purpose is to stabilize the head and body, thus controlling skeletal muscle and coordination for balance. vestibular-spinal reflex
_______ - generated calorics ( COWS ) and position change, cardinal sign for vestibular dysfunction Nystagmus
_____ and _____ are the 3rd most common complaint to physicians, following headaches and LBP dizziness and imbalance
___% of the population over the age of 40 will experience a balance or dizziness disorder during the lifetime 40%
of patients 65 and older, ___% of them will fall in a given year -- more than _______ hip fx 50%, 300,000
falls are the ______ cause of death from injury in persons over 65 years. leading
__% complaints of dizziness are due to vestibular problem 85%
>___% of MHI released from hospital as 'normal' have residual symptoms 50%
Endolymph Hydrops/Meniere's Disease - deals with _____ _____ fluid problem
Labyrinthitis/Neuronities - involves an ____ ____ _____ inner ear infection
Fistula - is when there is a _____ __ _____ rupture in membrane
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo - is having _____ _____ ___ misplaced ear rocks
Trauma - either ____ pressure, or a blow to the _____ barometric, head
Acoustic Neuroma - ____ _____ benign tumor
Ototoxicity - can be caused from ____, or _______ meds, chemicals
Clinical sxs of Vestibular Pathology include imbalance/_____, dizziness, _______, visual blurriness, ______ , tinnitus, fatigue falls, nystagmus, nausea
Clinical sxs of CNS Pathology include _____, spontaneous ______, poor muscle ____/____, decrreased postural control, poor oculomotor control ataxia, nystagmus, tone/control
Clinical Summary: __________ and _____ cues are compared with vestibular cues to produce compensatory oculomotor and postural responses. somatosensory, visual
the result of somatosensory, visual, and vestibular cues is " _____ ______ ". When these systems work appropriately and seamlessly, balance occurs subconsciously. sensory integration
Somatosensory, visual, and vestibular systems have a high level of ______ and _____ which allows for compensation through appropriate medical intervention. plasticity, redundancy
Created by: txst fall 2008