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EECS 563 Exam 1

Communication Networks

ANSI American National Standards Institute
EIA Electronic Industries Association
Tiers (1,2,3) 1. Backbone (Sprint, Verizon) 2. Commercial (Google, WOW) 3. Very Localized
CIR Committed Info Rate -Avg bandwidth for a VC guaranteed under a normal load
VCI Virtual Circuit Identifier -Label of a VC on a network that enables packets to be sent over the VC.
VC Virtual Circuit -Connection-oriented communication service that requires all connection to be set up and torn down.
UDP User Datagram Protocol -Connectionless transfer protocol. Alternative to TCP
ToS Type of Service -Field in IP header that enforces CoS/Diffserv
FDMA, TDMA Frequency-Division Multiple Access -Allocation of one or several bands of frequency/time to a user
FDD,TDD Frequency-Division Duplex -Upload and download done on two different frequencies/time
FDM,TDM Frequency/Time-Division-Multiplexing -Total bandwidth is divided into multiple non-overlapping frequency bands to carry different symbols.
TCP Transport Control Protocol -Protocol that transports packets in order from end to end
SS7 and SIP Signaling protocols used to set up and tear down virtual switched calls.
RIP Routing Information Protocol -Distance-vector routing protocol that counts number of hops and enforces TTL
QoS Guarantee given by network operator of special network performance metrics. Done in IP layer.
PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit -Long-term, statically set connection between two hosts. Eliminates individual call setup.
End to End Transport layer protocol that moves a packet from one host to another.
Point to Point Data link layer protocol that provides direct connection between two network nodes.
PoP Artificial interface point between communications entities.
CIDR Classless Inter-Domain Routing -Allocates IP addresses and routes IP packets (slash format)
OSI Open Systems Interconnection Model -7-layer model designed by ISO for network (physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, application)
NAP Network Access Point -Public network exchange facility where different ISPs connected to one another
MTU Maximum Transfer Unit -Size of largest unit that the layer can transport.
MAC Media Access Control -Sublayer that provides addressing and access control for several nodes accessing network over some PHY/DLL element.
ITU International Telecommunication Union -Part of U.N. that coordinates use of spectrum, satellite orbits, and develops international standards.
ISO International Organization for Standards -Body composed of representatives from multiple standards associations
IHL Internet Header Length -Number of 32 bit words on IP header
Benefit of Standards 1. Enables interoperability between vendors 2. Drives costs down 3. Assures consensus 4. Manages mistakes and evolution
Problems with Standards 1. Freezes technology 2. Multiple standards for same system 3. Takes a long time to become standardized 4. Defacto standards emerged 5. Difficult to evolve
LTE Long Term Evolution -4G network technology
Datagram Connectionless packet delivery method
TTL Time to Live -Number of hops left before packet is discarded. Done in IP
RFC Request for Comment -Memo published by IETF describing changes/research/innovations in the Internet
OSPF Open Shortest Path First -Link-state routing protocol for IP. Most notable IGP.
IGP Interior Gateway Protocol -Routing protocol used within an AS (OSPF)
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force -Develops and promotes internet standards, particularly TCP/IP
IEEE Institute of Electronic and Electric Engineers -Association that creates technology protocols.
ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol -Part of IP that sends control and error messages between network elements.
DNS Domain Name System -Distributed naming system for devices connected to the internet. Changes human readable name to IP address.
DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol -Protocol that is used to configure a device for use on a network. Gets IP address, default route, and DNS server.
CoS Class of Service -3 bit field in Ethernet layer that determines priority in service of packets. Done in DLL. (Diffserv)
EGP Exterior Gateway Protocol -Protocol that routes between AS's. (BGP)
BGP Border Gateway Protocol -Protocol that routes between AS's.
BER Bit Error Rate
LAN,MAN,WAN Local (Home), Metro (campus, city), Wide (country/state/region) Area Network
ARP Address Resolution Protocol -Maps IP address to PHY address (link layer) (MAC)
Encapsulation Each layer adds its own header/state and treats entire lower level as payload.
Session Layer Administrative Services
Presentation Layer Display/Language/Formatting
Application Layer -Presents to suer -Uses messages
Network Layer -Routing and Switching -Error Recovery -Logical Channel Control -Controls network connection -IP -Uses Datagram
Transport Layer -End to End -Maps network topology -Multiplexes data -TCP -Uses segments
Layer Model Principles -Small number of layers and interfaces -Simple layers -Changes made to one layer do not affect others -Allow bypassing -Each layer adds value -Encapsulation
PHY Layer -Electrical connection DTE/DCE - Data Terminal/Comms Equipment -Bit transmission -Mechanical Connection
DLL Layer -Point to Point -Manages link connection -Synchronizes and delimits -Uses frames (block frequency) -Flow and Error Control
Propagation Delay Time it takes for first packet to arrive: Distance/Speed of Light
Delay Bandwidth Product Amount of data that could be in transit: 2* Link Rate * Prop Delay
Link Utilization % time link is busy
Channel Efficiency % time link carries user info vs control info: Msg length/(Msg length + header + control)
Throughput Data transmit rate of a channel (b/s or packets/s): Normalized = S = Avg error free rate / link capacity
Rehability -Tree: P(no fail) = 1-p -Ring: P(no fail) = q^n+npq^(n-1) -Full Mesh: # links = n(n-1)/2 -> everything connected -Bus/Broadcast: Everyone broadcasts to everyone
Tunneling -Point to point connection through network in which packtes are encapsulated before entering -Enable VPN, address independence, enhanced security
AS Autonomous System -Collection of connected IP prefixes under control of one operator that has defined routing policy -Stub: 1 connection to outside -Multihomed: Multiple outside connections, doesn't transmit -Transmit - multihomed, but also transmits
ASN AS Numbers -32 bit numbers assigned as addresses to AS by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
Created by: pwn2d2
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