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Na disorders

DisorderDefinitionCausesTreatmentSigns and symptoms
Hypervolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia Words: high volume, low tonicity, low Na. Labs: Osmolality: <280 mOsm (low), Na: <134 mEq/L (low) Associated with elevation fo ECF that is more than the elevation of Na. (confusing... Total body Na excess: CHF, liver damage, nephrosis. Signs and symptoms: edema, weight gain, cerebral edema w/increased intracrainial pressure correction of underlying disease, Na and water restriction, cautious use of loop diuretics, vasopressin receptor antagonits --------------------
SIADH A potential cause of Euvolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia Carcinomas (lung or pancreas), Pulmonary disorders, CNS (meningitis, stroke, tumor, trauma), medications (sulfonyureas SSRIs, TCA, NSAIDs +more) water/fluid restriction (<1000mL/day), demeclocycline, phenytoin, and lithium, as well as hyperonic saline with Loops --------------------
Euvolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia Words: Normal volume, low tonicity, low Na Labs: osmolality: <280 mOsm (low), Na: <134 mEq/L (low) Associated with: small increase in ECF volume, normal to slightly decreased total body Na, imbalances of water intake and extretion (the big one) SIADH, H2O intoxication, renal faliure, K+ loss, medicaitons,and hypothyroidism removal of causative agents, or treat underlying cause, if Na <110 mEq/L use hypertonic saline 3% used with diuretics (loops) --------------------
Hypovolemic hypernatremia Words: low volume, high Na decreased ECF and Na Associated with a eficit of water that is greater than the Na deficit. Diarrhea and laxative induced, excessive sweating, diuretics, mannitol restoration of intravascular volume (NS 200-300mL/h), replacewater deficit (D5W, or 1/2NS-replaced over 2-3 days) decreased BP, decreased skin turgor, decreased HR
Hypervolemic Hypernatremia Words: high volume, high Na Associated with an elevated ECF and high Na, the Na gain is greater than water gain renal failure, iatrogenic (caused by treating hyponatremia),mineralcorticoid excess replace water deficit D5W and 0.45NS and conjunction with diuretics -------------------
Isotonic Hyponatremia Word break down: equal tonicity and low Na. Labs: Osmolality-280 mOsm (normal) and Na <134 (low) Uncommon, mostly pseudohyponatremia- the Na isn't actually reduced but it will shift from the ECF to the ICF to maintain the osmolarity Hyperlipidemia, hyperproteinema, isotonic infusion Resolution of cause --------------------
Hypertonic Hyponatremia Words: elevated tonicity, low Na Labs: Osmolality: >280 mOsm (high), Na: <134 mEq/L (low) Hyperglycemia (for every 100mg/dL increment of glucose over 200-serum Na decreases by 1.3-1.6mEq/L), hypertonic infusions (mannitol, glycine) Resolution of cause --------------------
Hypovolemic Hypotonic Hyponatremia Words: low volume, low tonicity, low Na. Labs: Osmolality: <280 mOsm (low), Na: <134 mEq/L (low) Associated with Deficit of ECF volume and Deficit of Na is more than deficit of water Diuretic use, profuse sweating, wound drainage, and burns, GI losses (vomiting/diarrhea), and renal tubular acidosis Na and Water replacement: determine Na deficit --------------------
Isovolemic Hypernatremia Words: normal volume, high Na water loss - diabetes insipidus, skin (fever), iatrogenic targeted at replacing water deficit D5W or 0.45NS --------------------
Created by: webbalis



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